John Henes was born in Gammertingen, Hohenzollern, Germany, on the 6th of January, 1852, and is a son of Eusebius and Ursula (Goeggel) Henes, both of whom were likewise natives of Gammertingen, where they continued to reside until 1884, when they came to America and joined their son John in Menominee, where they passed the remainder of their lives. They became the parents of three children,—Anton, who is now a resident of Seymour, Wisconsin; John, who is the immediate subject of this review; and Mary, who is now Mrs. Kessler. Both of the parents were zealous members of the Catholic church. John Henes is indebted to the excellent schools of his native land for his early educational discipline, and there also he learned in his youth the brewer's trade, under most effective conditions. At the age of nineteen years, in 1871, Mr. Henes came to America, as he felt assured of better opportunities for gaining success through individual effort by making this important step. He landed in New York city and thence came west to Wisconsin, a state to whose development his countrymen have contributed in most generous measure. He first located at Seymour, Outagamie county, that state, in which vicinity he was employed at farm work for a short interval, after which he went to the city of Milwaukee, where he followed the work of his trade until 1874. He then came to Menominee, Michigan, where he secured the position of brewmaster in the brewery of Adam Gauch. In 1876 he became associated with his fatherin-law, Jacob Leisen, in the purchase of the Gauch brewery, and later they also purchased that conducted by George Harter. Thereafter they conducted the business under the firm name of Leisen & Henes until 1890, when the Leisen & Henes Brewing Company was organized and duly incorporated under the laws of the state. The company now has a large and essentially modern plant, and its products are of the highest excellence, as is shown in the large and appreciative patronage accorded to the institution. Concerning the enterprise further mention is made in the sketch of the career of Jacob Leisen, on other pages of this publication. Careful and progressive management has enabled the company to build up a substantial and constantly expanding business which is a valuable contribution to the industrial prestige of Menominee.

Mr. Henes is vice-president of each the First National Bank, the Menominee River Sugar Company and the Richardson Shoe Company, and the two concerns last mentioned are among the most important manufacturing companies in this section of the state. Mr. Henes is also a member of the directorate of Menominee & Marinette Light & Traction Company, supplying light and street car service to the "twin cities" on opposite shores of the Menominee river; he is a director of the Lloyd Manufacturing Company, manufacturers of wooden ware; is president of the Henes & Keller Company, manufacturers of a bottle-filling machine invented by him and utilized in the most diverse sections of the world, and for ten years, until 1905, he was a member of the board of control of the Michigan state penitentiary at Marquette. He served one term as alderman of the old Fifth ward of Menominee and later was supervisor of this ward. He is a member of the board of trustees of the Menominee county school of agriculture, and is a member of a number of the representative civic and fraternal organizations of his home city, including the Menominee Turn Verein, of which he was president many years. In politics he is a staunch adherent of the Republican party.

The fine park presented to the city by Mr. Henes in 1907 is known as the John Henes park and comprises fifty acres of land. This benefaction is one that will constitute an enduring monument to his generosity and civic pride and that will ever be a source of pleasure to the citizens of Menominee. From a newspaper article are taken the following pertinent statements, which are well worthy of reproduction in this article: "Mr. Henes is one of Menominee's most sterling citizens. He has done much in the way of advancing the city's best interests along industrial lines, as well as taking great pride in the commercial and general growth of the city. He was largely interested in the erection of the fine Leisen & Henes business block, and by promoting other enterprises he has added materially to the progress and prosperity of the community. His success is largely due to close application, keen discrimination and resolute purpose. By the presentation of the John Henes park to Menominee Mr. Henes takes a place among the city's greatest benefactors. His name will be remembered with love and veneration, and children of this generation and of generations yet to come will profit by his generosity and thoughtfulness."

On the 29th of January, 1879, was solemnized the marriage of Mr. Henes to Miss Rosa Leisen, eldest daughter of that honored citizen of Menominee, Jacob Leisen, a review of whose career appears elsewhere in this volume. Mr. and Mrs. Henes have five children: Alfred A., Emeline J., John E., Walter E. and Othmar H. The only daughter is now the wife of William Caley, and they reside near Denver, Colorado.


Source: Sawyer, Alvah Littlefield, "A History of the Northern Peninsula of Michigan and its People."  Volume III.  Chicago: The Lewis Publishing Company, 1911.


If you feel dull, drowsy, debilitated, have frequent headache, mouth tastes badly, poor appetite, and tongue coated, you are suffering from torpid liver, or "biliousness," and nothing will cure you so speedily and permanently as


ASK the recovered dyspeptics, bilious sufferers, victims of fever and ague, the mercurial diseased patient, how they recovered health, cheerful spirits, and good appetite—they will tell you, by taking Simmons' Liver Regulator,

The Cheapest, Purest and Best Family Medicine in the World!  Manufactured only by J. H. ZEILIN & CO.,  MACON, GA., and PHILADELPHIA.  Price, $1. Sold by all Druggists. Click on link below and read companies start and history through sale J.H. Zeilin & Co.





From an old Indian recipe in possession of the family of the proprietor for upwards of a century is now offered to the public as one of the most healthy and wholesale beverages extant and as a tonic is unsurpassed. Sold by principal grocers, druggists and hotels throughout the union. Endorsed by a professor at Yale College. Drug
Catalog: 1871, Schieffelin New Haven Daily News, April 7

, 1859, Harpers Weekly, October 8, 1859.

George Goodwin began manufacturing patent medicines in the 1840′s at 76 Union in Boston. Around 1850, he and Dr. John O. Langley of Langley’s Bitters became partners and in 1854, moved to 99 Union.

By 1857, the firm was named Geo. C. Goodwin & Co., and had taken in William B. Hibbard as a junior partner. Goodwin retired in 1859 and his son Charles C. Langley, and Hibbard ran the business. In 1863, they moved to 38 Hanover. Eventually the company became on of Boston’s largest wholesale drug firms. 

Courtesy Peachridge Glass


David Jayne was born in Stroudsburg, PA in 1799. In 1818 He took up the study of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. After completing his studies he began to practice as a rural family doctor in Salem, New Jersey in 1822. Apparently, he first introduced his own medicines around 1830, and he was first listed as an M.D. in Philadelphia in 1839. An ad in late 1850 listed the firms address at No. 8 South Third Street; at the bottom it added that "after October, 1850, the store would be removed into the new eight story granite building, 84 Chestnut Street.

Jayne sold various nostrums including a "Tonic Vermifuge" for the expulsion of worms. He gave away copies of "Jayne's Medical Almanac & Guide to Good Health" to prospective users of his many preparations. The almanacs contained a picture of a big-eyed worm along with a lot of advice about how to stay in good health (mainly by buying his concoctions).

In 1846 his two sons: David W. and Eben C. joined him and the business was known as David Jayne & Sons. In 1855, Dr Jayne issued a statement that "The manufacture and sale of my family medicines, heretofore conducted in my name, will hereafter be conducted under the firm name of Dr. D. Jayne & Sons, to whom all letters relating to the sale of my medicines should be addressed." From 1860 to 1866 the business was probably run by his sons. He was serving as president of the Commonwealth Insurance Company during this period. He apparently died in 1866. It was said that he left about $3,000,000 to his family who continued to run his business.

The business called D. Jayne & Sons was alive and well past the turn of the century. From 1870 to 1884, it was being run by Eben C. Jayne and John K. Walker. Then, from 1885 till after 1905, Eben was running the business alone.
{Text ~ Hair Raising Stories}

Merchant's Gargling Oil, 1886 / 1890

Merchant’s Gargling Oil was a "liniment for man or beast." It was manufactured from 1833 to the early 20th century. It was primarily used as a topical ointment to treat horses and other animals for burns, scalds, sprains, and bruises. Gargling Oil could also treat a variety of strange ailments, including foundered feet, horn distemper, sitfast, ringbone, swelled legs, poll evil, foot rot in sheep, garget in cows, roup in poultry, and mange.

Merchant's Gargling Oil Company, Lockport, New York


Hamlin's Wizard Oil was an American patent medicine sold as a cure-all under the slogan "There is no Sore it will Not Heal, No Pain it will not Subdue." First produced in 1861 in Chicago by former magician John Austen Hamlin and his brother Lysander B. Hamlin, it was primarily sold and used as a liniment for rheumatic pain and sore muscles, but was advertised as a treatment for pneumonia, cancer, diphtheria, earache, toothache, headache and hydrophobia.It was made of 50%-70% alcohol containing camphor, ammonia, chloroform, sassafras, cloves, and turpentine, and was said to be usable both internally and topically.

Traveling performance troupes advertised the product in medicine shows across the Midwest, with runs as long as six weeks in a town. They used horse-drawn wagons and dressed in silk top hats, frock coats, pinstriped trousers, and patent leather shoes—with spats. They distributed song books at the shows and in druggists. Performers included James Whitcomb Riley, singer and composer Paul Dresser from Indiana, and southern gospel music progenitor Charles Davis Tillman.

Grinnell College research points out that the Hamlins claimed efficacy for Wizard Oil on not only human beings but also horses and cattle, one poster displaying an elephant drinking the stuff by lifting the bottle with the trunk. Bottles came in 35¢ and 75¢ sizes. Carl Sandburg inserted two versions of lyrics titled "Wizard Oil" together with a tune into his American Songbag (1927).

In 1916, Lysander's son Lawrence B. Hamlin of Elgin, by then manager of the firm, was fined $200 under the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act for advertising that Hamlin's Wizard Oil could "check the growth and permanently kill cancer.

Ayer's Sarsaparilla  Published: July 14, 1880

Is a concentrated extract of Para Sarsaparilla, so combined with other substances of still greater alterative power as to afford an effective antidote for the diseases Sarsaparilla is reputed to cure, Such a remedy is surely wanted by those who suffer from strumous complaints, and that one which will accomplish their cure must prove of immense services to this large class of our affected fellow-citizens. How completely this compound will do it has been proven by experiment on many of the worst cases to be found in the following complaints:

Scrofulous Complaints, Eruptions and Eruptive Diseases, Ulcers, Pimples, Blotches, Tumors, Salt Rheum, Scald Head, Syphilis and Syphilitic Affections, Mercurial Disease, Dropsy, Neuralgia or Tic Douloureux, Debility, Dyspepsia and Indigestion, Erysipelas, Rose or St. Anthony's Fire, and indeed the whole class of complaints arising from Impurity of the Blood.

This compound will be found a great promoter of health when taken in the Spring, to expect the foul humors which fester in the blood at that season of the year. By the timely expulsion of them many rankling disorders are nipped in the bud. Multitudes can, by the aid of this remedy, spare themselves from the endurance of foul eruptions and ulcerous sores, through which the system will strive to rid itself of corruptions, if not assisted to do this through natural channels of the body by an alterative medicine. Cleanse out the vitiated blood whenever you find its impurities bursting through the skin in pimples, eruptions or sores; cleanse it when you find it is obstructed and sluggish in the veins; cleanse it whenever it is foul, and your feelings will tell you when. Even where no particular disorder is felt people enjoy better health and live longer for cleansing the blood. Keep the blood healthy, and all is well; but with this pabulum of life disordered there can be no lasting health. Sooner or later something must go wrong, and the great machinery of life is disordered or overthrown. 

During late years the public have been misled by large bottles pretending to give a quart of Extract of Sarsaparilla for one dollar. Most of these have been frauds upon the sick, for they not only contain little, if any, Sarsaparilla, but often no curative properties whatever. Hence, bitter and painful disappointment has followed the use of the various extracts of Sarsaparilla which flood the market, until the name itself is justly despised, and has become synonymous with imposition and cheat. Still we call this compound Sarsaparilla; and intend to supply such a remedy as shall rescue the name from the load of obloquy which rests upon it. And we think we have ground for believing it has virtues which are irresistible by the ordinary run of diseases it is intended to cure

Prepared by Dr. J.C. AYER & CO., Lowell, Mass. Price $1 per bottle: six bottles in one package $5.  Sold by all druggists everywhere.

Hamlin's Wizard Oil was an American patent medicine sold as a cure-all under the slogan "There is no Sore it will Not Heal, No Pain it will not Subdue." First produced in 1861 in Chicago by former magician John Austen Hamlin and his brother Lysander B. Hamlin, it was primarily sold and used as a liniment for rheumatic pain and sore muscles, but was advertised as a treatment for pneumonia, cancer, diphtheria, earache, toothache, headache and hydrophobia.It was made of 50%-70% alcohol containing camphor, ammonia, chloroform, sassafras, cloves, and turpentine, and was said to be usable both internally and topically.

Traveling performance troupes advertised the product in medicine shows across the Midwest, with runs as long as six weeks in a town. They used horse-drawn wagons and dressed in silk top hats, frock coats, pinstriped trousers, and patent leather shoes—with spats. They distributed song books at the shows and in druggists. Performers included James Whitcomb Riley, singer and composer Paul Dresser from Indiana, and southern gospel music progenitor Charles Davis Tillman.

Grinnell College research points out that the Hamlins claimed efficacy for Wizard Oil on not only human beings but also horses and cattle, one poster displaying an elephant drinking the stuff by lifting the bottle with the trunk. Bottles came in 35¢ and 75¢ sizes. Carl Sandburg inserted two versions of lyrics titled "Wizard Oil" together with a tune into his American Songbag (1927).

In 1916, Lysander's son Lawrence B. Hamlin of Elgin, by then manager of the firm, was fined $200 under the 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act for advertising that Hamlin's Wizard Oil could "check the growth and permanently kill cancer.


by Roz Young


 About a century ago in St. Louis after the death of their founder, owners of the Dr. Harter Family Medicine Co. hired W.M. Hayner, president of the Hayner Distilling Co., Troy, to manage the business. The company manufactured "Dr. Harter's Iron Tonic," a proprietary medicine that was a staple on the shelves of every drug store in the country.

 As soon as Hayner became a member of the firm, he proposed that the company needed a new building in a new location.

 He came to Dayton and talked to prominent businessmen here about the idea. J.K. McIntire, wholesale grocer and vice president of the Weston Paper Co., A.C. Marshall, partner in the North Star Tobacco Works, Col. Harry E. Mead, secretary of the Mead Paper Co., Inc., W.H. Nesbitt, real estate, Fred Reibold, president of the Teutonia National Bank, John Kirby, Jr., manager of the Dayton Manufacturing Co., Will H. Kinnard, secretary-treasurer of the Crume and Sefton Co. and secretary of the Dayton Autographic Register Co., and Torrence Huffman, president of the Fourth National Bank and the Union Safe Deposit and Trust Co., formed a committee to raise funds for a site and building if the company would agree to move here. The company agreed.

 The committee bought land on the northeast corner of First Street and the canal (now Patterson Boulevard), erected a five-story building and placed a giant wooden medicine bottle on the top.

 Aug. 5, 1895, a train carrying the first of the manufacturing equipment and the officers of the company left St. Louis for Dayton. Newspaper reporters from Dayton and every town on the route between St. Louis and Dayton went to St. Louis to accompany the train.

 Local businesses declared a holiday, and when the train arrived at Union Station, the whistles of every Dayton manufacturing plant blew, and the huge bell at the Central Fire Station rang. At the signal, thousands of Daytonians hurried downtown, some to inspect the 18-car train, and others to crowd along the curbs to watch the parade. At 7:40 p.m. Col. Torrence Huffman, grand marshall, gave the signal and led by the Springfield Cadet Band and a platoon of mounted police, the parade began. All the houses along the route were decorated and lighted with Japanese lanterns. Dayton businesses were represented by company express wagons. The Harter company express wagons followed, and at the last of the parade were 200 carriages filled with Dayton citizens. All occupants of the wagons and carriages had been given red flares and Roman candles to shoot, and the entire parade was a ribbon of colorful explosions as it countermarched along Main Street to the Atlas Hotel.

 Officials of the Harter company were feted at a banquet at the Atlas, attended by 150 invited guests of the Dayton business community. Ebenezer M. Thresher, manufacturer of varnish and linseed oil, president of the Board of Trade and toastmaster, greeted the company on behalf of the citizens of Dayton, and Hayner accepted the greetings. He introduced Thomas Kyle, Harter spokesman, who said he had been told that Dayton had a population of 80,000 but he had seen 800,000 at the parade.

 The next day the new plant opened with Hayner as manager and Walter C. Kidder as assistant manager. For many years thereafter, Dr. Harter's Iron Tonic carried the name of Dayton, Ohio on its bottle labels.

 Hayner and Kidder in 1901 sold the business to B.H. Winters of Springfield, and O.F. Davisson and opened the first mail-order whiskey business in the country with a distillery at Troy and the offices and storerooms in Dayton. The company went out of business in 1911.

 Dr. Lee T. Cooper, who had a family practice at 812 E. Fifth St., started a new tonic business in the old Harter building, calling his product "Cooper's New Discovery." He sold his product throughout the country in the approved medicine-wagon style, with music, a health talk and vaudeville acts and his tonic at $1 a bottle. When a newspaper reporter asked him what was in his medicine that made it so successful he became a millionaire in a very short time, he winked and said, "It's about 90 proof."
A native of the English city of Leeds who was raised in Liverpool, Benjamin Brandreth took over the patent medicine business started by his grandfather in the 1820s. He pioneered the use of advertising with testimonials to the effectiveness of the pills' treatment of the blood impurities thought to create disease at the time, and developed a growing presence in the English and American markets. In 1835 he moved to New York with his family.

His success continued, and the following year he moved to Ossining, then known as Sing Sing, to acquire all the land the remaining buildings sit on, and build a factory. By 1837 he was working from two buildings, one of which is the Greek Revival building that still stands in the cluster of buildings east of the street at the south end of the site. It may have been designed by Calvin Pollard, who built two houses in Ossining for Brandreth (neither extant) during this period as well as St. Paul's Episcopal Church downtown. An early engraving, used in his ads, depicts the building as having three stories and a cupola. It was right on the shore of the Hudson.

Brandreth may have found Sing Sing not only a beautiful place to do business but a strategic one as well. Agricultural produce shipped down to its active river port could be used as the vegetable base of the pills, and those pills could then be shipped down to New York City. At the time, there were also mining and quarrying operations, particularly at the new Sing Sing Prison, on the riverside, but Brandreth's manufacture of finished goods at his facility made his the first true industrial facility on the Ossining waterfront.
A color illustration of a naked child and a dog seen from the rear, sitting on a small pier on a riverbank with clothes at the right. In the distance are a sailing ship and a rocky mountain. The top of the image has the inscription "Allcock's Porous Plasters Are The Best" in red and black lettering. Smaller, curved lettering at the bottom reads "Brandreth's Pills" and the ship's sail says "Brandreth's Pills Purely Vegetable".
An 1885 ad for the pills and plasters

After an 1838 trip down the Mississippi River to sell pills, the business grew even more. Brandreth became a naturalized U.S. citizen in 1840, and became active in the politics of the growing village. He served as its president for three years, and later was elected to two separate terms in the State Senate. In 1848, he purchased an interest in fellow English American Thomas Allcock's Porous Plasters and began developing a facility to manufacture them on an old mill site further up the river. The Hudson River Railroad was being built through Sing Sing that year, further extending the company's reach and filling in the riverfront to provide a stable, straight surface for tracks. The latter opened more land for future building in the process.

The factory's expansion served it well for the next two decades. It continued to produce 1.2 million boxes of pills annually, each of which retailed for 25 cents ($10 in modern dollars The pills were well-known enough that Herman Melville mentioned them in Moby-Dick and Edgar Allan Poe devoted part of his story "Some Words with a Mummy" to a fanciful discussion of what their ingredients might be. P.T. Barnum gave Brandreth sardonic
recognition in his book Humbugs of the World for his promotional skills. Back in Ossining, Brandreth helped establish two banks, and was on the founding board of Dale Cemetery, still the community's largest. If the company had wanted to expand during this period, the economic pressures of the Civil War prevented it from doing so.

Seven years after the end of the war, in 1872, a fire destroyed many of the buildings, including Brandreth's first manufacturing facility.[5] The rebuilding put up most of the surviving buildings, as well as the more modern facility on an old mill site at the north end of the property: the current main building. Brandreth wanted to incorporate the newest technology into his new buildings, and so the storage facility midway between the two complexes was one of the first in Westchester to use corrugated iron[2] while the main building had some of the first Otis elevators.

One morning in early 1880, Brandreth collapsed and died shortly after leaving his office. His son Franklin took over management. During the later years of the 19th century and the early 20th, the factory began to diversify its operations in response to increasing federal regulation of the patent-medicine industry. Among the new products were ammunition-box liners for the military during World War I.
A black-and-white photograph taken from the corner of a room with tables on which small objects are piled, some in containers and others loose. In the middle of the room women in white aprons are seated around the tables, apparently at work.
Women packing pills at factory, ca. 1900

Franklin Brandreth stepped down in 1928 and was replaced by his grandson Fox Brandreth Connor. By then the domestic market for the pills it had once manufactured in abundance was gone. Of the factory's earlier products, only porous plaster remained, and that was only made in winter. The company was making nail polish, mannequins, cell forms for bulletproof fuel tanks and the Havahart line of non-lethal animal traps.

In 1940 the company sold the buildings at the southern end of the property to the Gallowhur corporation, which used them to make insect repellent and suntan lotion. The rights to the pill formula were also sold off after World War II.Brandreth's company, under the Allcock name, continued its manufacturing operations in the 1870s complex until 1979
Vincent Clarence Price was born in Troy, New York, December 11, 1832, a son of Daniel and Julia (Castle) Price.
He attended the Eclectic Medical College of New York City. He later attended Bennett College of Medicine and Surgery. He received the honorary degree of M. D. from the former institution in the class of 1871.

Dr. Price, invented "Dr. Price's Baking Powder", the first cream of tartar baking powder, and thus secured the family's fortune.
In 1853 he began experimenting with a leavening substance that could be used in the safe preparation of food. Though he was the pioneer in the manufacture of DR. Vincent C. Price baking powder, he could get his his product to market because he had no funds to do so.

Thinking that the growing west offered better prospects for a young doctor, he moved to Waukegan, Illinois, where he obtained a sizable clientele and earned enough money to go to Chicago and manufacture and market his baking powder. It was first manufactured in 1869 and sold by ounces but is now made and sold by the tons.
He also delved in the manufacture of extracts and even a cereal named Algrain.
In 1891 the sale of the baking powder alone amounted to more than one million dollars.
He was for eleven years president of the Lincoln National Bank of Chicago.

He & his wife had five children.

1. Rush C., born January 13, 1856, was educated in Beloit College and Harvard University. He was identified with the Price Baking Powder Company since its organization, and was vice president of the Price Flavoring Extract Company since its incorporation.

2. Guerdon, graduated from the Racine College and was his father's assistant in business. He was accidentally shot and killed in Colorado by a guide while on a hunting trip in November, 1891. He married Eunice Cobb, of Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and left five children: George, Guerdon. Ida, John and Robert.

3. Vincent I., born 1872, graduated from Yale University.
Mr. Vincent I. Price lived in St. Louis. He married Miss Marguerite Wilson, of Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and had three children: Harriet, Mortimer and Laura Louise.

4. Ida, graduated from Kemper Hall and married A. C. Fischer, secretary of the Price Flavoring Extract company, and had three children, Russell, Charles and Vincent.

5. Emma, graduated from a young ladies seminary in Buffalo, New York, was the wife of J. F. Hollingworth and had two children, Price and Harriet.

Dr. Price was the grandfather of Vincent Price, the actor.
FOR SALE BY ALL DRUGGISTS 'the Genuine has Trade Mark and crossed red Lines on wrapper  TAKE NO OTHER.

The makers of Brown's Iron Bitters, it goes, decided to invade the South Seas, and one Jeff Gordon, with a cargo of Brown's Iron Bitters was put ashore on the farflung island of Perpetual Bloom. The ruling queen, provocatively named Dallalingo, was beauteous but ailing. One draught of Jeff Gordon's all-purpose remedy, and she became a new woman, married Jeff, and made him King of the Islands.
THE GREAT AMERICAN CONSUMPTIVE REMEDY.  A.L. SCOVILL & CO., Manufacturers and Proprietors, Cincinnati, O.


Consumption, Decline, Asthma, Bronchitis, Wasting or Flesh, Night sweats, Spitting of Blood, Hooplng-Cough, Difficulty or Breathing, Cough, Croup, Influenza, Phthisic, Pain In the Side, and all Diseases or the Lungs.



It is estimated that 150,000 die annually in the United* States with Consumption, and Professor Eberle says that a vast number of these could be saved by the timely use of some proper remedy.

DR. WILLIAM HALL'S BALSAM FOR THE LUNGS strikes at the root of the DISEASE AT ONCE, and such Is its speedy effect that any one using it freely, according to directions, for twonty-four or forty-eight hours, and not being entirely satisfied with its merits, may return it and receive back his money. The most distressing cough is frequently relieved by a single dose, and broken up In a few hours' time. The afflicted do not hare to take bottle after bottle before they find whether this remedy will afford relief or not.

The public have been imposed upon by remedies recommended by certificates which have always originated from some unknown source. We believe that a MEDICINE POSSESSING REAL MERITS will effect cures wherever it is used, at home as well as abroad. SO GREAT HAS been the success of this medicine, that few CITIES, TOWNS, or VILLAGES can be named where soma LIVES have not been saved by the use of DR. WM. HALL'S BALSAM FOR THE LUNGS. Its suceess has induced some, who care only for making money, without regard to the health or life of those who purchase, to get up Lung Balsams, thinking they can sell it on the REPUTATION of DR. WM. HALL'S BALSAM FOR THE LUNGS; and some, in recommending their "Lung Balsams," have even dared to use certificates for cores that have been effected by the use of DR. HALL'S BALSAM FOR THE LUNGS, hoping thereby to DECEIVE THE AFFLICTED, for their individual BENEFIT. We therefore caution all to BEWARE of such UNPRINCIPLED DECEPTIONS. PHYSICIANS and other INTELLIGENT persons, in all parts of the country, have given their UNQUALIFIED APPROVAL and RECOMMENDATION of DR. WM. HALL'S BALSAM for The LUNGS.

Would it not be the part of WISDOM to buy that which Is KNOWN and APPROVED, in preference to new and uncertain preparations?

We therefore repeat, buy only Dr. Wm. Hall's Balsam for the Lungs. It is the best.

THIS IS NO PAREGORIC preparation, but one which, if used in season, will save the lives of thousands. It has effected cures in numerous cases, where the most skillful physicians in this country and In Europe have been employed, and have exercised their skill in vain. Cases which they have PRONOUNCED INCURABLE, and SURRENDERED AS HOPELESS BEYOND A DOUBT, LEAVING THE PATIENTS WITHOUT A SINGLE RAY TO ENLIVEN THEM In their gloom, have been cured by Dr. Hall's Balsam for the Lungs, and the ■ Victims or Consumption" are now as vigorous and strong as the most robust among us. And these cases are not isolated ones; they are numerous,and can be pointed out in every community where this most unrivaled remedy has been tested.

Be slow, then, to believo the oft-repeated story about the lungs being gone; or, rather, let no such apprehension induce you to give up. Act upon the principle that while there is life there is Hope. You can never not trust, humanly speaking, In Dr. "Wm. Hall's Balsam for the Lungs. More than one, nay hundreds, have been brought by it almost from death to life, when all else have failed. Give,then,this powerful but harmless remedy atrial.

Accompanying each bottle of DR. HALL'S BALSAM FOR THE LUNG'S is a treatise, in pamphlet form, on Consumption, with special directions for using, modes, treatment, etc., for which we bespeak your perusal.

It can be found for sale at all the principal Druggists and Dealers in Family Medicines in the United States.

A. L. SCOVILL & C0.9 Proprietors, Cincinnati, Ohio



Prepared for the use of New York Physicians in 1844.

The Most Efficacious and Palatable Aperient.

Having used your Tarrant's Seltzer Aperient in my practice for the past . twenty years, I can truthfully indorse it as the best Aperient I have ever prescribed for disorders of the stomach, dyspepsia and for constipation of pregnancy. In fact I know of no other Aperient to equal it.

I have recently found it a splendid vehicle for the administration of tincture of iron. It overcomes the constipating effect, neutralizes the acid so that it does not affect the teeth, and disguises the taste of the iron perfectly.

Allegheny, August 13, 1890 S. W. BOGGS, M. D.

The Typical Saline in Rheumatic and Gouty Diathesis.

Tarrant's Seltzer Aperient is an old and familiar remedy with me, having used it for thirty years in my practice. With me it has not been superseded for general purposes as a laxative by any of the waters or their saline constituents so much in vogue at the present day.

Its effervescent and palatable qualities especially adapt it to cases of irritable stomach, and its saline elements fit it peculiarity for cases of Gout, Rheumatism, Lithiasis, etc. MARTIN LUTHER, M. D.

Reading, Pa., November 12, 1890.

The Ideal Remedy for the Constipation of Pregnancy.

I have used Tarrant's Seltzer Aperient for the past twenty years in the constipation of pregnancy, and have found it an invaluable remedy for subduing constipation and entirely controlling morning sickness.

I fully indorse it as the best remedy I have ever used.
Kansas City, Mo., April 23, 1890. J. J. SMITH, M. D.

Tarrant's Seltzer Aperient is a medicine both palatable and efficacious, made for and used by the profession for nearly fifty years; it is worthy the attention of all physicians .who are in search of a remedy that can always be relied upon, and is of special value owing to the wide range of cases in which it is applicable.




During the Civil War, W. W. enlisted as a private with the 28th New Jersey Infantry for a nine month term. It was mustered in at Freehold, New Jersey and spent some time in the defense of Washington D.C. W. W. fell ill there and was treated in "Lee House Hospital" for four months. On April 16, 1863 W. W. received a disability discharge for severe rheumatism from exposure. Shortly after his discharge the 28th New Jersey left Falmouth and fought in the battle of Chancellorsville in May, taking such heavy losses that the unit was disbanded later in July 1863.

After the war he became a patent medicine man, and marketed himself as "Professor W.W. Dill." Later he started the "Dill Medicine Company" of Norristown, Pennsylvania, and sold products like Dill's Pills, Healing Salve, Balm of Life, and Royal Cough Cure from which he built a fortune.

The Professor is mentioned in Appendix 2 of Bean's 1884 History of Montgomery Co, PA. The Chief Marshal listed the order of the parade for the honor of the centennial of Montgomery county on Thursday, September 11th, 1884. At the very end of the parade was Prof. Dill's Balm of Life wagon with red tent and blue banner.

He also advertised in a Montgomery County Directory as a "Patent Medicine Manufacturer" at Marshall and Stanbridge.

Prof. W. W. Dill was involved with a splinter Mennonite group called Evangelical Mennonites (later renamed to the Bible Fellowship Church). In 1858 seven Mennonite revivalists, who were under pressure from bishops of the General Conference Mennonite Church to give up their style of evangelism, decided they didn't want to restrict the freedom of expression they enjoyed in their revival and prayer meetings, so they left the General Conference and formed the Bible Fellowship Church. They seem to have been strongest in Buck and Lehigh Counties.

A BFC church in Norristown was first opened in 1888 but was too weak and closed in 1890. Several more attempts were made to start this church. It was re-opened 1894 to 1899, 1901 to 1910, and finally 1934 to 1936.

Verhandlungen is the minutes of the conferences of the Bible Fellowship Church when it was known as the Evangelical Mennonites and Mennonite Brethren in Christ. The church historian in 2006, Dr. Richard Taylor, was kind enough to send me translations from the original German minutes, of the sections relating to the Dills.

From Verhandlungen, 1895, page 243: "Whereas the Lord has led Brother W. W. Dill of Norristown, to build a church at that place and to present it to this denomination, handing the keys over to the Presiding Elder at the dedication, January 1, therefore Resolved: That this conference tender a hearty vote of thanks to the Lord and the dear brother for his kindness and liberality, and ask the Lord to bestow His richest blessings upon him and use the church as the birthplace of hundreds of souls."

Verhandlungen, 1897, "Resolved, That we kindly ask Brother W. W. Dill to compile and publish a tract on his knowledge and experience on tobacco."

Verhandlungen, 1899, W. W. Dill is listed as a licensed missionary, which, according to Dr. Taylor, indicates he may have presented himself to be a preacher, with recognition from the local Norristown church, but not the denomination.

Verhandlungen, 1900, 1901, 1902, 1903, and 1904, W. W. Dill is again listed as a licensed missionary. Verhandlungen, 1905, he is listed as a licensed "worker".

There is some confusion in the Verhandlungen between Prof. W. W. Dill and his son Dr. W. W. Dill, for obvious reasons. For example, in the marriage record for Wallace and Maude Willman, both father and son are called William W. Dill. So, some (or all) of the above W. W. Dill's might refer to Wallace.


Philip Whitlock  and the P. Whitlock Cheroot and Cigar Company

 In the Spring of 1853, an adventurous 15 year old boy set off Westward from his native Poland. His destination, the docks of Bremerhaven. There he caught a boat to New York, where he found relatives among that city’s teeming Polish population. In summer of the following year he set off once again, this time to Richmond, Virginia, where he moved in with an older brother, and began working as a tailor’s assistant. By 1859, the 21 year old lad had become an American citizen and joined the Richmond Grays, a militia unit made up largely of Poles and other European immigrants. When the war came Philip was assigned to the quartermaster corps where he made uniforms for two years. In 1864 he left the military to get married and purchase a Richmond tobacconist’s business, which he and his new wife ran during the remainder of the war.

        At the close of the war in 1865, Whitlock hired six cigar rollers and opened the P. Whitlock Company. The 1867 version of Universal Tobacco Dealers Directory that annually evaluated the nation’s cigar and tobacco manufacturers gave the fledgling company a CD rating, the best a tiny operation could hope for: “business limited but has good credit for moderate amounts.”  Historical records don’t indicate, but it’s likely Philip employed fellow Eastern European immigrants with mother-country cigar-making experience. Whomever he hired, his business prospered. A Directory of the Tobacco Trade of the United States, Great Britain and Germany published in 1874 lists Philip’s Company as Whitlock and Abram, located at 1445 East Main Street. When this association began, and how long it lasted, is not known, but this is the only referent to it I have found (not surprising since data is sparse).

        Government records compiled in 1885 show the P. Whitlock Company was bonded and licensed for 70 rollers, who would have been capable of more than 100,000 cheroots a week. Those same records show Whitlock was engaged in the manufacture of smoking tobacco as well as cheroots and cigars, but no quantities are suggested. Another 30 support people appear to also have been on staff say other sources.  In 1886 Philip Whitlock completed construction of the giant “P. Whitlock’s Cheroot and Cigar Factory” and introduced OLD VIRGINIA CHEROOTS, a 3/5¢ smoke that would become a national favorite for more than a half century.

    The new factory, located at 2004 & 2006 Franklin street in Richmond, cost $20,000 to build and had the latest in cigar making machinery, enabling the company to more than double its previous output. The building was described by a contemporary writer as “first class” with steam-driven machines, $1,000 each elevators, modern toilets for both men and women as well as “handsome” rooms for packing cheroots, which were to become the company’s primary focus.

    In 1891, P. Whitlock’s OLD VIRGINIA CHEROOTS became the first of two cheroot brands to be purchased by James “Buck” Duke’s newly formed American Tobacco Co. (“the tobacco trust”). Whitlock was a logical choice for Duke: large, successful, in the heart of tobacco country and not all that far from Duke’s NC stomping grounds. The other was the Banner Cheroot Company, control over which was attained in 1899. American Tobacco Co. was not yet in the cigar business, domestic or foreign. They made only cheroots, but that would soon change (described in another Exhibit).

    After selling his company for a very heady $300,000, Philip Whitlock stayed on as head of the P. Whitlock branch of the American Tobacco Company. Conflicting reports exist as to whether he retired in 1895 or whether he remained the branch head when the American Cigar Company was formed in 1901 after American Tobacco acquired Puerto Rican, Cuban and domestic cigar companies. He apparently did not continue as head of P. Whitlock when the federal court settlement made the brand part of P. Lorillard in 1911.  Lorillard continued to make OLD VIRGINIA CHEROOTS with little change to the the name, trade mark and package design until the brand was discontinued in the early days of World War Two. 
  © Tony Hyman, All rights reserved, click on the picture and visit Tony s great site on cigar collectables  
Hires Root Beer was created by Philadelphia pharmacist Charles Elmer Hires. The official story is that Hires first tasted root beer, a traditional American beverage dating back to the colonial era, while on his honeymoon in 1875. However, historical accounts vary and the actual time and place of the discovery may never be known.  By 1876, Hires had developed his own recipe, and he was marketing 25-cent packets of powder which each yielded five gallons of root beer. At Philadelphia's Centennial Exposition in 1876, he cultivated new customers by giving away free glasses of root beer. Hires marketed it as a solid concentrate of sixteen wild roots and berries. It claimed to purify the blood and make rosy cheeks. In 1884, he began producing a liquid extract and a syrup for use in soda fountains, and was soon shipping root beer in kegs and producing a special fountain dispenser called the "Hires Automatic Munimaker." In 1890, the Charles E. Hires company was incorporated and began supplying Hires root beer in small bottles.

But Hires's choice of name for his product caused a problem: the word "beer" drew the wrath of the temperance movement[citation needed]. He had his root beer tested by a laboratory, and trumpeted
their conclusion that a glass of his root beer contained less alcohol than a loaf of bread.[citation needed] Hires Root Beer was promoted as "The Temperance Drink" and "the Greatest Health-Giving Beverage in the World." Hires advertised aggressively, believing "doing business without advertising is like winking at a girl in the dark. You know what you are doing, but nobody ELSE does."
Hires Root Beer mug, 1930s or earlier

One of the major ingredients of root beer was sassafras oil, a plant root extract used in beverages for its flavor and presumed medicinal properties. The medicinal properties of root beer are emphasized in the advertising slogan, "Join Health and Cheer/Drink Hires Rootbeer." Ironically, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration banned sassafras oil in 1960 because it contains the carcinogen and liver-damaging chemical safrol. However, a process was later discovered by which the harmful chemical could be removed from sassafras oil while preserving the flavor.

Hires Root Beer kits, available in the United States and Canada from the early 1900s through the 1980s allowed consumers to mix an extract with water, sugar and yeast to brew their own root beer. However, most consumption was of pre-bottled root beer.

Consolidated Foods bought the company from the Hires family in 1960, only to sell Hires two years later to Crush International. Procter & Gamble bought Crush in 1980, and sold it to Cadbury Schweppes in 1989. Cadbury spun off its soft drinks arm in 2008, and the beverage company renamed itself Dr Pepper Snapple Group that year.
The prototype Coca-Cola recipe was formulated at the Eagle Drug and Chemical Company, a drugstore in Columbus, Georgia, by John Pemberton, originally as a coca wine called Pemberton's French Wine Coca.He may have been inspired by the formidable success of Vin Mariani, a European coca wine.

In 1886, when Atlanta and Fulton County passed prohibition legislation, Pemberton responded by developing Coca-Cola, essentially a nonalcoholic version of French Wine Coca.The first sales were at Jacob's Pharmacy in Atlanta, Georgia, on May 8, 1886. It was initially sold as a patent medicine for five cents a glass at soda fountains, which were popular in the United States at the time due to the belief that carbonated water was good for the health. Pemberton claimed Coca-Cola cured many diseases, including morphine addiction, dyspepsia, neurasthenia, headache, and impotence. Pemberton ran the first advertisement for the beverage on May 29 of the same year in the Atlanta Journal.

By 1888, three versions of Coca-Cola – sold by three separate businesses – were on the market. A copartnership had been formed on January 14, 1888 between Pemberton and four Atlanta businessmen: J.C. Mayfield, A.O. Murphey; C.O. Mullahy and E.H. Bloodworth. Not codified by any signed document, a verbal statement given by Asa Candler years later asserted under testimony that he had acquired a stake in Pemberton's company as early as 1887.

Asa Candler, however, eventually took on a more formal position by being part of the Coca-Cola Company incorporation filed in the Fulton County Superior Court on March 24, 1888. This action included Charley Pemberton and Woolfolk Walker, along with the latter's sister, Margaret Dozier. The four made up the original shareholders for "Coca-Cola Company," a Georgia corporation. All parties held copies of the Coca-Cola recipe and could continue to use the formula separate of each other.

Pemberton, though, had declared that the name "Coca-Cola" belonged solely to his son Charley. The situation was quite agitating to both Candler and Walker, and quickly placed the two at odds with Charley Pemberton. What further caused friction over this issue was that John Pemberton variously forgot he had actually signed over the sole rights to the "Coca-Cola" name to his son Charley earlier. Pemberton's ongoing health problems, compounded by his morphine addiction brought about from his old Civil War injury, made the situation difficult.

Charley Pemberton's record of control over the "Coca-Cola" name was the underlying factor that allowed for him to participate as a major shareholder in the March 1888 Coca-Cola Company incorporation filing made in his father's place.[14] More so for Candler especially, Charley's position holding exclusive control over the "Coca Cola" name continued to be a thorn in his side.

Asa Candler's oldest son, Charles Howard Candler, authored a book in 1950 published by Emory University. In this definitive biography about his father, Candler specifically states: "..., on April 14, 1888, the young druggist [Asa Griggs Candler] purchased a one-third interest in the formula of an almost completely unknown proprietary elixir known as Coca-Cola."

The deal was actually between John Pemberton's son Charley and Walker, Candler & Co. - with John Pemberton acting as cosigner for his son. For $50 down and $500 in 30 days, Walker, Candler & Co. obtained all of the one-third interest in the Coca-Cola Company that Charley held, all while Charley still held on to the name. After the April 14th deal, on April 17, 1888, one-half of the Walker/Dozier interest shares were acquired by Candler for an additional $750.

Charles Howard Candler's statement that April 14, 1888 was the date his father secured a "one-third interest in the formula" held by Charley Pemberton for the then obscure Coca-Cola elixir, none-the-less confirms this event was a major turning point for Asa Candler and his interests in Coca-Cola. This, too, was a most auspicious occasion that Asa Candler would have especially wanted to preserve in an 'official' photograph. By this time the "Coca-Cola" syrup-making apparatus had already been moved from Joe Jacob's pharmacy to the basement of Candler's larger 47 Peachtree Street location, where the drink's ever increasing syrup-bottling demands could be better handled.

In 1910, Asa Candler had ordered all corporate documents pertaining to the first Coca-Cola Company burned. An original 1888 photograph shows the very beginnings of the Coca Cola Company, and formerly was the personal property of Asa Griggs Candler.

In 1914, Margaret Dozier, as co-owner of the original Coca-Cola Company in 1888, brazenly came forward to claim her signature on the 1888 Coca-Cola Company bill of sale had been forged. Subsequent analysis of certain similar transfer documents had also indicated John Pemberton's signature was most likely a forgery, as well, which some accounts claim was precipitated by his son Charley.

In 1892, Candler set out to incorporate a second company; "The Coca-Cola Company" (the current corporation). When Candler had the earliest records of the "Coca-Cola Company" burned in 1910, the action was claimed to have been made during a move to new corporation offices around this time.

The loss of the early corporate records further obscured the 1888 corporation's legal origins. Only one sole original "ASA G. CANDLER & CO." photograph from 1888 remains, and that example Candler at one time kept at his private home outside of Atlanta.

After Candler had gained a better foothold of Coca-Cola in April 1888, he nevertheless was forced to sell the beverage he produced with the recipe he had under the names "Yum Yum" and "Koke". This was while Charley Pemberton was selling the elixir, although a cruder mixture, under the name "Coca-Cola", all with his father's blessing. After both names failed to catch on for Candler, by the summer of 1888, the Atlanta pharmacist was quite anxious to establish a firmer legal claim to Coca-Cola, and hoped he could force his two competitors, Walker and Dozier, completely out of the business, as well.

When Dr. John Stith Pemberton suddenly died on August 16, 1888, Asa G. Candler now sought to move swiftly forward to attain his vision of taking full control of the whole Coca-Cola operation.

Charley Pemberton, an alcoholic, was the one obstacle who unnerved Asa Candler more than anyone else. Candler is said to have quickly maneuvered to purchase the exclusive rights to the name "Coca-Cola" from Pemberton's son Charley right after Dr. Pemberton's death. One of several stories was that Candler bought the title to the name from Charley's mother for $300; approaching her at Dr. Pemberton's funeral. Eventually, Charley Pemberton was found on June 23, 1894, unconscious, with a stick of opium by his side. Ten days later, Charley died at Atlanta's Grady Hospital at the age of 40.

In Charles Howard Candler's 1950 book about his father, he stated: "On August 30th {1888}, he {Asa Candler} became sole proprietor of Cola-Cola, a fact which was stated on letterheads, invoice blanks and advertising copy."

With this action on August 30, 1888, Candler's sole control became technically all true. Candler had negotiated with Margaret Dozier and her brother Woolfolk Walker a full payment amounting to $1,000, which all agreed Candler could pay off with a series of notes over a specified time span. By May 1, 1889, Candler was now claiming full ownership of the Coca-Cola beverage, with a total investment outlay by Candler for the drink enterprise over the years amounting to $2,300.

According to collected general histories about Coca-Cola, one early account claimed that Coca-Cola was sold in bottles for the first time on March 12, 1894. The event witnessing the first commercial sale of bottled Coca-Cola however actually took place a few years before, in early 1891. The basic concept of bottling Coca-Cola was brainstormed by Asa Candler in late 1890.
Excerpts from Asa G. Candler prepared January 1891 Grier's Almanac revealing the very first advertisements for bottled Coca-Cola priced "25 cts. for large bottles" - available from the Candler pharmacy at 47 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Georgia.

Asa Candler first made the drink elixir available in bottles available at his Asa G. Candler & Co., 47 Peachtree Street, Atlanta, Georgia pharmacy location, with the first ever advertisements documenting bottled Coca-Cola found in Grier's Almanac issued in January of 1891. Large bottles of Coca-Cola were "Sold by Druggists and Grocers at 25 Cents per Bottle." The drink also contained the coca-leaf drug extract, which was cited in a banner advertisement atop one of the calendar pages in the 1891 Grier's Almanac. Asa Candler had proclaimed himself "sole proprietor" by this time, after having paid off the financial notes due on the outstanding shares of the original Coca-Cola Company held by Woolfolk Walker and Margaret Dozier.

The first bottling of Coca-Cola outside of Atlanta occurred in Vicksburg, Mississippi, at the Biedenharn Candy Company in 1891. The proprietor of the bottling works was Joseph A. Biedenharn. The original bottles were Biedenharn bottles, very different from the much later hobble-skirt design of 1915 now so familiar.

Although Asa Candler had spearheaded bottling Coca-Cola as early as late 1890, he never-the-less was tentative about bottling the drink. At the time, to get the bottled drink to market into all sectors of the United States, Candler reasoned using trains and horse-drawn wagons was not cost productive - unaware that the gas motor automobile and what came to be known as motor trucks - was just around the corner. In his world present in the 1890's, keeping distribution local was the key factor Candler understood. For Candler, national distribution of bottled Coca-Cola was too big a jump for his still, relatively small company.

It was then a few years later that two entrepreneurs from Chattanooga, Tennessee, namely; Benjamin F. Thomas and Joseph B. Whitehead, proposed the idea of bottling and were so persuasive that Candler signed a contract giving them control of the procedure for only one dollar. Candler never collected his dollar, but in 1899, Chattanooga became the site of the first Coca-Cola bottling company. Candler remained very content just selling his company's syrup.  The loosely termed contract proved to be problematic for The Coca-Cola Company for decades to come. Legal matters were not helped by the decision of the bottlers to subcontract to other companies, effectively becoming parent bottlers.

The first outdoor wall advertisement that promoted the Coca-Cola drink was painted in 1894. in Cartersville, Georgia.

Coke concentrate, or Coke syrup, was and is sold separately at pharmacies in small quantities, as an over-the-counter remedy for nausea or mildly upset stomach.
The Dobbins Soap Manufacturing Company, founded in 1863, had a factory in Philadelphia at Germantown Ave, Susquehanna Ave, and the southwest corner of Marshall Street which they had remodeled in 1864 and 1865. Owned by the Cragin family, by 1887 the firm had built a factory on the southwest corner of 17th Street and Federal Street, where they operated until 1934. George Cragin was the superintendent from 1887 through 1906, Louis Bresset had the position in 1914, and Alex Macfeat had it in 1924.



"I have been keeping house forever five years, and during that time could not find a soap that gave me entire satisfaction as to results until I tried your Dobbins Floating-Borax Soap. H. T. French, Cleveland, Ohio."

"We have used your Dobbins Electric Soap in our household for years, and have found nothing like it in the market that can take its place.

"(Miss) A. E. Duplessis, Northborough, Mass."

"We have given your Dobbins Floating-Borax Soap a trial, and find it highly satisfactory. We use it in the kitchen, bath, and laundry.

"Mrs. Caroline Genee, Cleveland, Ohio."

"Since I found out the good quality of your Dobbins Electric Soap, I have not and will not use any other in my family. It gives entire satisfaction if used according to directions. Mrs. Wm. Ulmkr, Chicago, 111."

"I cannot speak too highly of your Dobbins FloatingBorax Soap. I use it for both washing and toilet. I have not had a cake of any other soap in the house since I started

Price has been reduced on the original old-fashioned Dobbins Electric Soap, so that it can now be bought at eight cents a bar, two bars for fifteen cents. Quality same as for last thirty-three years, "Best Of All." Ask your grocer for it. No one has ever found fault with its quality; no one can now find fault with its price. It stands as it has

to use it. Mrs. Marion L. Horton, Yonkers, N.Y. _ •

for thirty-three years, in a class by itself, as to quality, purity, and economy, but is now in class with others as to price. Beautiful presents for wrappers.

It is the original Electric, and is guaranteed to be worth four times as much as any other soap ever made. For washing anything, from the finest lace to the heaviest blanket, it is without a peer. Only follow directions.

READ CAREFULLY all that we say on two wrappers around the soap, and then see for yourself whether or not you can afford to ever use any other soap than this, after having heard its own story, told you by your own test

The first English patent under the category of Washing and Wringing Machines was issued in 1691 A drawing of an early washing machine appeared in the January 1752 issue of "The Gentlemen's Magazine", a British publication. Jacob Christian Schäffer's washing machine design was published 1767 in Germany.In 1782, Henry Sidgier issued a British patent for a rotating drum washer, and in the 1790s Edward Beetham sold numerous "patent washing mills" in England. In 1862, a patented "compound rotary washing machine, with rollers for wringing or mangling" by Richard Lansdale of Pendleton, Manchester, was shown at the 1862 London Exhibition.
The first United States Patent titled "Clothes Washing" was granted to Nathaniel Briggs of New Hampshire in 1797. Because of the Patent Office fire in 1836, no description of the device survives. A device that combined a washing machine with a wringer mechanism did not appear until 1843, when Canadian John E. Turnbull of Saint John, New Brunswick patented a "Clothes Washer With Wringer Rolls."
Margaret Colvin invented the Triumph Rotary Washer, which was exhibited in the Women's Pavilion at the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876 in Philadelphia.
Electric washing machines were advertised and discussed in newspapers as early as 1904. Alva J. Fisher has been incorrectly credited with the invention of the electric washer. The US Patent Office shows at least one patent issued before Mr. Fisher's US patent number 966677 (e.g. Woodrow's US patent number 921195). The "inventor" of the electric washing machine remains unknown.
US electric washing machine sales reached 913,000 units in 1928. However, high unemployment rates in the Depression years reduced sales; by 1932 the number of units shipped was down to about 600,000.

Dr C. W. Robacks Stomach Bitters

Dr. C.W. Roback from Philadelephia knew the value of advertising and had a termendous following among swedish countrymen who bought his tonic bitters. In the 1870s his medicines could still be found in Minnesota drug stores. He advertised in Scandinaven.
Doctor CW Roback promised that his "Alterative" cured cancer, his "Sanative Pills" insured bowel regularity,

An 1856 newspaper entry describes his arrival to the mid west. Dr Roback was a identified as a Swedish mystic, a flim-flam man in the best traditions of 19th century patent medicines.
He was involved with astrology , the occult, and other forms of metaphysical. His barrel shaped tonic bitters were a big seller.

In the late 1860s, Frank Fehr, an immigrant from the Alsace region of France, worked for the Madison Brewing Company. In 1872, Fehr opened a brewery in Louisville which became City Brewery in 1876. Frank Fehr Brewing Company, Louisville, Kentucky (Fehr's Brewery at Preston and Fehr Avenue, Louisville, Kentucky. An iron gate connects a brick wall and a brick building, cutting off a cobbled section in front of a building behind. High above the gate is an arch. The Frank Fehr Brewing Company was originally on Green Street (now Liberty Street) between Preston Street and Jackson Street in 1872. It went on to become the largest brewery in Kentucky. It joined the Central Consumers Corp. with other breweries in 1901. Fehr Brewery was the only brewery in the corporation to reopen after Prohibition. The brewery closed in 1964. A housing facility for the elderly, called Dosker Manor, was built on the site of the brewery.) 
Otto Brewery, Frank Fehr     Louisville, KY     1872 - 1876
Frank Fehr, Old Brewery (City Brewery)    Louisville, KY   
 1876 - 1890
Frank Fehr Brewing Co.     Louisville, KY     1890 - 1901
Frank Fehr Brewing Co.     Louisville, KY     1901 - 1918
Frank Fehr Brewing Co.     Louisville, KY     1933 - 1964
The woman advertising Carmeliter Bitters not only is displaying considerable cleavage but has her skirt hitched up as she leans provocatively what appears to be a bar stool. This nostrum was advertised not only as “The Elixir of Life,” but as a remedy for “all kidney and liver complaints.” It was the product of Burhenne & Dorn who did business at 347 Hamburg Avenue in Brooklyn, New York.  {Courtesy~Jack Sullivan}
RC. BROWN & CO., Principal Distributing Agents of Straiton & Storm's Segars, No. 21 Murray Street.—The firm name m of " Straiton & Storm" is a veritable household word—the most valuable trade-mark of any in the cigar trade, and pointing distinctly to the impressive fact that the above concern is the leading manufacturer of cigars on the continent. The vast demand for the reliable, fragrant goods of the house of Straiton & Storm has resulted in the development of the greatest manufacturing interests of the kind in the world; and New York thus benefits by being the location of this great industry. The firm of Messrs. R. C. Brown & Co. are the principal distributing agents for the product of the mammoth concern, and annually handle more cigars than any other house in the trade. Mr. Brown, the popular and enterprising representative, commenced in business in 1872, and is one of the most experienced wholesale dealers and authorities in the market. He has made a close study of the wants of the trade, and has in stock by far the most varied and comprehensive assortment of styles, sizes, and grades, so as to be the best prepared of any to satisfactorily meet the most exacting requirements. He occupies very extensive premises, comprising three floors at No. 21 Murray Street, 25x100 feet each, fully stocked with the numerous brands of the Straiton & Storm cigars. From here emanates the largest shipping trade in cigars on the continent, Messrs. Brown & Co.'s connections being the most influential and widespread of any. Here are sold solely to dealers all the hundreds of popular brands manufactured by Messrs. Straiton & Storm, from goods ranging as low as $10 to $20 a thousand up to such famous exquisite goods as factory "Londres Grande" at $65 per thousand, "Dauphin" bouquets at $75 per thousand, "Prince Imperials" and "Epicures" at $68; "Aromaticos," Spanish make of "La Rositas," at $70; "Royal Owls," " Storm's Straight Ten," etc. etc. Messrs. R. C. Brown & Co. maintains its pre-eminence as the leading wholesale cigar house of the United States on the impregnable basis of efficiency, integrity, and enterprise. They never deceive customers, maintaining the full standard of all brands. They do not charge an extra profit to insure risks such as are taken by nine tenths of our competitors. All the Straiton & Storm goods are guaranteed, and customers are not allowed to keep goods unsatisfactory to their trade. In a word, Messrs. Brown & Co. make their customers' interests their own, and dealers feel safe in buying from such an honorable, responsible house, realizing that they best meet the wants of their trade, and can permanently develop a profitable and desirable business in their section against all odds. The firm were for some time located at the corner of West Broadway and Franklin Streets, from which point they removed to their present commodious and convenient premises during March of the present year. Mr. R. C. Brown is universally popular and respected, and has ever retained the confidence of leading commercial and financial circles, being a fitting representative of the most extensive and famous cigar manufacturer of the United States.
Frank Ruhstaller


Captain Frank Ruhstaller, proprietor of the City Brewery, and one of the prominent business men of Sacramento, is a native of Switzerland, born at Ensiedeln, November 8, 1847, his parents being Frank, Sr., and Josepha (Ochsner) Ruhstaller. His father was a hat-maker by trade in early life, but afterward a farmer and dairyman. The subject of this sketch attended the public schools between the ages of six and thirteen years and learned the brewer’s trade at Canton Berne. In 1862 he came to the United States, taking passage on a steamer at Havre, in July, and landing at New York. Proceeding to Louisville, Kentucky, he obtained employment in the Falls City Brewery for a short time, then went across the river to St. Albany, Indiana, where he became foreman in Paul Reising’s brewery, before he was eighteen years old. He went back to Louisville again and from there came to California in 1865 via New York and Panama, landing at San Francisco about the 24th of August. He came to Sacramento and went to work in the City Brewery, and on the 3d of September, six weeks later, became foreman, and held that position for one year. He then went to the Pacific Brewery, and brewed for George Ocha, off and on, for three years.  He next bought an interest in the Sutterville Brewery, and was in partnership there with Joseph Bechler for seven or eight months. The high water then stopped work and he went back to the Pacific Brewery.  He remained with Ochs until he sold out to Mr. Louis Knauer, and then worked for the latter two years driving wagon.  Then he bought into the St. Louis Brewery, and, in partnership with Fritz Futterer and Henry Altpeter, conducted that brewery for six or seven months. He then went back to the Pacific Brewery, where he drove wagon for the succeeding two years.  Then he became foreman. Soon afterward he received word that his father was sick in Switzerland, and he at once went back there, but his father had died before he reached home. That was in 1873. In August of that year he again left there for California, and returning to Sacramento opened a place opposite the Metropolitan Theatre. He continued in business there until November, 1881, when he bought the City Brewery and has since carried on the business. The City Brewery was originated by William Borchers and a man named Hilbert, about 1859. Hilbert died in March, 1865, and Charles Schwartz took his interest in the business. In 1887 the latter retired from the firm, and Mr. Borchers carried on the business alone until the brewery was purchased by Mr. Ruhstaller. Since the last named gentleman took control, he has made so many improvements that he has practically a new brewery. When he bought the place it was operated by horse-power and had a capacity of fifteen barrels a day. The beer brewed in this brewery has a fine reputation and splendid trade. Mr.  Ruhstaller was married in Sacramento on Christmas day, 1870, to Miss Charlotte Oeste, a native of Germany, but reared at Milwaukee. They have had eight children of whom five are living, viz.: Anna, Frank J., Minnie, David and August. Mr. and Mrs. Ruhstaller have been bereaved by the loss of four beloved children, viz.: Ottow, Wilhelmina, Otto and Charlotte.  Mr. Ruhstaller became a member of Sacramento Hussars in 1867. From 1878 up to 1882 he was Captain of the Hussars, after Fritz Heilbronn. He has been a member of Schiller Lodge, No. 105, I. O. O. F., since 1868. He is a member of Tehama Lodge, A. F. & A. M.; of the Sacramento Turn-Verein; of Hermann’s Sons, and of the Verein-Eintracht. He is a member of the Foresters’ Gun Club, and won the gold medal at the April shoot, 1889.  He is an honorary member of the Sacramento Rifle Club, and gave to the club the cannon presented by General Sutter to the Swiss Rifle Club.  While firing a salute with the cannon the arm of A. Klebe was blown off, and the cannon was buried and $1,800 collected for Klebe. Captain Ruhstaller has in his possession the flag presented to the Swiss Rifle Club, in 1854, by the members of the Schutzen Club, of Canton Zurich, Switzerland, the presentation being by Governor Bigler. Mr. Ruhstaller made his start in business in Sacramento, and by good judgment and good management in business, coupled with liberality and enterprise, has built himself up until he now ranks among the solid men of the city.

One of the earliest images of the man with a fish on his back appeared around 1884 on advertising trade cards. Image courtesy of the National Museum of American History Collections, Smithsonian Institution.
The Paper Man
The man stoops forward, glances out from under the brim of his hat, legs braced under the weight of his load. A thick rope, wrapped around his waist, shoulders, and hands, secures the load on his back—a huge fish with gaping mouth and glassy yellow eye, its tail sweeping the ground. A common codfish, the Gadus morhua is recognizable by the brown and amber spots on its body, the light stripe down its side, and the three dorsal fins. The man has few identifying features, but the words “SCOTT’S EMULSION” appear along the hem of his jacket.
By 1900 “the man with the fish” was famous. His image was engraved and embossed on countless boxes and bottles of a cod-liver-oil preparation; printed in full color on advertising trade cards, booklets, and posters distributed around the globe; and in one instance painted several stories high on the side of a building in lower Manhattan. The man with the fish endures today, a testament to the persistence of an age-old tradition, even as scientific and commercial interest in cod-liver oil has waxed and waned.
A “Highly Disagreeable Remedy”
Northern European fishing communities used cod-liver oil for generations to restore health and alleviate aches and pains before the doctors and chemists of 19th-century Europe began to take an interest. Its manufacture was simple: cut out the fish livers (with gallbladders), throw them into barrels, and let them decompose. Fishermen often applied heat to extract the last bits of oil from the smelly, decaying mass. The oil grew darker during the rotting process, resulting in three grades: pale, light brown, and dark brown. “In those days,” wrote pharmacist F. Peckel Möller in his 1895 monograph Cod Liver Oil and Chemistry, “cod-liver oil was not a desirable article of consumption; indeed, to put the matter plainly, it was an abomination, and no one could have taken it willingly, even once, not to speak of day after day and month after month. Nevertheless many people did take it, and the only reasonable explanation is that the oil must have given strikingly favorable results.”
Edinburgh physician John Hughes Bennett played a part in introducing cod-liver oil to the English-speaking medical community. In 1841 he published his Treatise on the Oleum Jecoris Aselli, or Cod Liver Oil, after spending some years in Germany observing its use for the treatment of rickets (a disease marked by soft and deformed bones), rheumatism, gout, and scrofula (a form of tuberculosis). Bennett’s publication quickly spawned further research and experimentation by medical practitioners on both sides of the Atlantic, resulting in the growth of a large cod-liver-oil industry in New England by mid-century.
Ludovicus Josephus de Jongh of the Netherlands produced the first extensive chemical analysis of cod liver in 1843. His studies of the efficacy of the three grades of oil led him to conclude that the light-brown oil was the most therapeutic. He attributed this superiority to the larger quantities of trace substances found in it: iodine, phosphate of chalk, volatile acids, and “elements of bile.”
In 1846 de Jongh traveled to Norway to procure the purest oil available. By the 1850s “Dr.de Jongh’s Light Brown Cod Liver Oil” was marketed throughout Europe and exported to the United States. Each bottle bore de Jongh’s signature and stamped seal—a blue codfish on a red shield—guaranteeing that the product was “put to the test of chemical analysis.” Advertising emphasized de Jongh’s credentials as a physician and chemist and included testimonials from other men of science and medicine. As one 1869 advertisement stated, “It was fitting that the Author of the best analysis and investigations into the properties of this Oil should himself be the Purveyor of this important medicine.”
Even the most steadfast proponents of cod-liver oil, such as de Jongh and Bennett, admitted that the highly disagreeable taste and smell presented a significant hurdle to its use.
In 1873 Alfred B. Scott came to New York City and, along with partner Samuel W. Bowne, began experimenting to produce a less nauseating preparation of cod-liver oil. Three years later they established the firm of Scott and Bowne, and began marketing their product as Scott’s Emulsion. Though not a doctor or pharmacist by training, Scott had the eye for opportunity that was necessary for achievement in business. Advertising, the two men believed, would propel their product to success. And so it did: by the 1890s Scott and Bowne had factories in Canada, England, Spain, Portugal, Italy, and France, and advertised their emulsion throughout the Americas, Europe, and Asia.
Scott procured his oil for Scott’s Emulsion directly from the Lofoten Islands, a long chain located above the Arctic Circle and the world center of cod fishery. As Möller whimsically described the islands in Cod Liver Oil and Chemistry:
The islands are inhabited by the Maelstrom, the Midnight Sun, and a few people “of no importance.” They are also largely visited by callers belonging to three quite distinct grades of society. First, the tourist (var. Brit., Amer., et Germ.); secondly the cod-fish (var. G. morrhua); and lastly the Norwegian fisherman, who has no particular Latin name, but is a very decent fellow notwithstanding.
“As Palatable as Milk”
De Jongh believed the problem of palatability could be surmounted with a little perseverance or “a little preserve for children, some fruit, a biscuit, or a drop of Bordeaux or Sherry wine.” Despite such assurances, much discussion and advice revolved around overcoming the nauseating taste and smell. Often the oil was mixed into coffee, milk, or brandy; some recommended taking the oil with smoked herring, tomato ketchup, or in the froth of malted beverages. Those with an “insurmountable aversion to the taste” could take the oil by enema.
Scott and Bowne carefully distinguished their tastier product from other “secret” remedies, openly publishing the formula in early advertising: “50 per cent. of Pure Cod Liver Oil, 6 grs. of the Hypophosphites of Lime, and 3 grs. of the Hypophosphites of Soda to a fluid ounce. Emulsified with mucilage and Glycerine.” The mucilage used was probably gum acacia. The glycerine added sweetness and was also thought to have tonic and healing properties. The hypophosphites of lime (calcium) and soda (sodium) were considered helpful in the treatment of consumption.
Scott and Bowne’s first trademark, registered in 1879, included the initials P.P.P. and three words—“Perfect, Permanent, Palatable.” The mark reflected their perfect formula; a permanent emulsion, that is, one that would not separate; and most important, a palatable one. One advertisement proclaimed, “You do not get the taste at all; because the little drops of oil are covered over in glycerine, just as pills are covered in sugar or gelatine.” “Palatable as milk” became a key tagline in Scott’s advertising.
The man with the fish on his back first appeared on Scott’s Emulsion around 1884 and became Scott and Bowne’s trademark in 1890. As Scott told it, he saw this fisherman with his record-breaking catch while on business in Norway. A photographer was quickly found to record the scene; later the photo was faithfully reproduced and registered as the company’s trademark. Trade cards and booklets featured the fisherman and his catch along with the words, “Scene taken from life on the coast of Norway” and “This Codfish, weighing 156 pounds, was caught off the coast of Norway.” The realistic image, a direct reference to the natural source of the medicine, served as a reassurance of quality in a marketplace of adulterated goods. Man and fish also evoked the romance and myth of the sea and the fisherman, who procures the bounty of the sea.
Scientific Medicine and “The Great Flesh Producer”
Cod-liver oil’s reputation as an effective treatment for “consumption,” a leading cause of death in the 19th century, led to its widespread popularity. A variety of diseases like scrofula, phthisis, tuberculosis, rickets, and rheumatism were understood to be manifestations of “consumption” or “wasting diseases.”
In 1882 Koch’s discovery of the tubercle bacillus, the “germ” that causes tuberculosis, launched a new era of scientific medicine. However, the new knowledge did not immediately yield effective new treatments, and the popularity of the old remedies remained unaffected. In their advertising Scott and Bowne recognized the role of microorganisms in disease, describing the cause of consumption as a growing germ that destroys the lungs much as a growing germ causes the “moulding of cheese.” As they explained, the germ itself is harmless until it finds some “smothered, starved, or tired, spot” within the body to grow. The strength of their product rested in its power to nourish the body and build up resistance to the germ. With Scott’s Emulsion, the thin and frail become plump and robust, and it was proudly proclaimed the “Great Flesh Producer.”
Pharmacological science in the 19th century focused on the identification and study of the “active principles” of the crude drugs. The isolation of plant alkaloids—such as morphine from opium and quinine from cinchona—provided medicine with substances of increased potency and known quantity that could be administered with more predictable results. Investigators sought the same success with cod-liver oil. In 1888 French chemists Armand Gautier and Luis Mourgues published an analysis of the active principles in light-brown cod-liver oil titled “Les alkaloides de l’huile de foie de morue.” Their findings echoed the earlier studies of de Jongh in their preference for the light-brown oils over the paler variety.
Although the medical community continued to debate the value of any “extract” of cod-liver oil, the commercial appeal and profitability of these products remained. Vinol, Wine of Cod Liver Oil, was one popular product, introduced in the late 1890s by Charles Kent and Company, Chemists, of New York City. In the company’s own words “Vinol is cod liver oil with out the oil.” The very fat that many still considered to be the essence of cod-liver oil’s therapeutic value had become the vile, useless, greasy part.
Scott and Bowne responded to the claims of the new popular extracts in their advertisements in the early 1900s:
Here are the Facts: You hear about the “active principles” of cod liver oil and are told that in certain wines, cordials and extracts of cod liver oil this principle is presented with the objectionable features left out. Nothing to it. The only active principle of cod liver oil is the whole oil.

As continued investigations failed to settle the controversy surrounding cod-liver oil’s “active principles,” the oil dropped out of favor with many doctors. The United States Dispensatory of 1918 summed up the situation thus: “Whether or not [the oil] acts simply as a foodstuff or whether it has some direct influence on the bodily metabolism, is open to dispute.”
The Oil and the Vitamin
Even as the 1918 Dispensatory edition was readied for publication, new research challenged its conclusions. In 1912 Polish-born biochemist Casimer Funk concluded that the lack of some essential nutrient caused certain diseases, such as beri-beri, pellagra, scurvy, and rickets. He coined the term vitamine (soon changed to vitamin) to describe these as yet unidentified substances.
Cod-liver oil played a central role in the nutritional research that uncovered the secrets of these mysterious vitamins. In experiments with rats at the University of Wisconsin in 1913, Elmer McCollum and Marguerite Davis proved the existence of an essential nutrient in cod-liver oil, dubbing it “fat-soluble A.” By 1922 McCollum identified another vitamin in cod-liver oil—the antiricketic “fat-soluble D.” Cod-liver oil was an important source of two “new” essential nutrients: vitamin A for growth and healthy eyes and vitamin D for the proper development of bones. Although recognized for a long time, rickets developed into a considerable health problem in the early 20th century, especially in the children of the urban poor.
One of the earliest images of the man with a fish on his back appeared around 1884 on advertising trade cards. Image courtesy of the National Museum of American History Collections, Smithsonian Institution.Neither Scott nor Bowne lived to see the advent of the age of vitamins, which became the new “wonder drugs” and a boon to the marketers of cod-liver oil. The two died in 1908 and 1910, respectively, as wealthy men. Their emulsion survived them; advertisements in the 1920s touted the health-promoting properties of the vitamins—proof that modern science had vindicated an old remedy.
With the discovery of vitamins the medical world transformed cod-liver oil from a remedy largely dismissed as old-fashioned to an indispensable part of every child’s diet. Health professionals urged mothers to dose their children daily and provided much advice on how to get babies to swallow the nasty stuff. “Guile Baby into Regarding Cod Liver Oil as a Treat” headlined one newspaper health column, which continued, “It remains for the mother to sternly squelch any disposition to be ‘sniffy’ about cod liver oil. She must assume that bright, alert expression which is so natural to her when she offers the baby something simply marvelous.” Pamphlets on infant care issued by the U.S. Children’s Bureau demonstrated the proper method of administering the oil: a “forced feeding” that included squeezing the baby’s cheeks together to prevent it from spitting out the oil.
New research also gave renewed credence to the idea of active principles separable from the bulk of the nasty oil. In 1927 Casimir Funk and Harry Dubin, working for H. A. Metz Laboratories, patented a process for extracting vitamins A and D from the oil. Their patent application begins, “This invention relates to the treatment of cod liver, cod liver oil, or its derivatives for the purpose of obtaining therefrom a highly concentrated substance rich in the antixerophthalmic and antirachitic vitamines [A and D], to which, as has been definitely established, cod liver oil owes its therapeutic action.”
Oscodal Tablets, the resulting “vitamin pills” marketed by Metz, were sugar coated, making them all the more palatable. In the initial advertising campaign the Metz Company sent leaflets and literature to “all the physicians in the United States,” and salesmen personally visited thousands. Metz distributed free samples with the advice that doctors try it on “one of those ‘fussy’ patients who cannot take cod liver oil but still need it.”
The Scott and Bowne Company also introduced a “vitamin pill” concentrate of cod-liver oil in the early 1930s. The man with the fish on his back appeared on the packaging, a reminder that codfish were still the source of the product.
“Emancipation from the Fish?”
As scientists unraveled the role of vitamin D in cod-liver oil, others worked on a way to supply the vitamin without the cod’s liver. Scientists identified ergosterol, a substance extracted from the fungus ergot, as the molecular precursor to vitamin D. When irradiated, ergosterol became several hundred thousand times as potent as cod-liver oil. The compound, marketed in an oil base as Viosterol, was added in minute amounts to fortify other products with vitamin D. One columnist heralded irradiated ergosterol—first announced to the public in 1927—as ushering in “the final triumph of chemistry” and added that vitamin synthesis would mark our “emancipation from the fish that swim in the ocean and the vegetation that grows on the land.”
Emancipation took some time. Cod (and other fish) liver oil continued to be the preferred daily supplement, and Scott’s Emulsion remained on the market as a popular and more palatable alternative to pure oil. Advertising copy in the 1940s and 1950s emphasized Scott’s “natural A&D vitamins and energy-building natural oil factors.” However, the large-scale production of synthetic vitamins and vitamin fortification of other foods gradually undermined our dependence on traditional “natural” sources. Synthetic replacements irreparably broke the age-old connection of the fish, the fisherman, the land of the midnight sun, and the “villainous fluid” they produced.
But in the 1970s Danish doctor Jorn Dyerburg connected diets based on cold-water oily fish to a low incidence of coronary disease among the Greenland Inuit. His work led to further studies on the health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids and so paved the way for the innumerable fish-oil supplements seen on the market today. The new research, still ongoing, strongly suggests that there is more to the therapeutic value of cod-liver oil than its vitamins.
Scott’s Emulsion weathered the changes in medical knowledge, therapeutic practice, and cultural preference. Still produced today in much the same formula, the emulsion remains rich in vitamins A and D, calcium, phosphorus, and nowomega-3 fatty acids. Its therapeutic claims echo a long tradition of use: promoting healthy growth, building resistance to disease, and guarding against the ravages of age. Although the emulsion is no longer widely used in the United States where the vitamin pill mostly supplanted it, it remains popular in Asia and Central and South America, markets pioneered by Alfred Scott in the late 19th century. The man with the fish on his back still appears on every package, a testament to a traditional remedy that continues to inform and adapt in an era of scientific medicine.
By ~ Diane Wendt , associate curator in the Division of Medicine and Science at the National Museum of American History of the Smithsonian Institution.

DAVID C. DRISLANE, one of the energetic and influential citizens of Poughkeepsie, Dutchess county, is now engaged in the wholesale and retail grocery and liquor
business, in which he is meeting with a well- deserved success, and owns the substantial brick block which he occupies. He was born June 7, 1857, at Tarrytown, Westchester county, New York.
Cornelius Drislane, father of our subject, is a native of County Cork, Ireland, where his childhood and youth were passed, and he there learned the business of florist. When a young man he came to America, making his first location at Manhattan, N. Y. , where he followed his occupation and married Catherine Cummings, who was also born in County Cork. After remaining at Manhattan a short time, they removed to Tarrytown, N. Y.,where for a time he continued his calling, and on leaving that place he became gardener for John Jacob Astor, in Ulster county, N. Y. , near West Park, by whom he was employed some fifteen years. He then purchased a farm in Orange county, N. Y., which he operated for ten years, at the expiration of which time he returned 'to Tarrytown, where he still makes his home. He is a stalwart Democrat
in politics, and for the past ten years has been trustee of Tarrytown; in religious faith he is a Roman Catholic. His wife, who held membership with the same denomination, died in 1892. They were the parents of nine children, namely: William E. is a groceryman of Albany, N. Y. ; Lena (deceased) was the wife of Robert Ludford, who conducted a grocery store at Sing Sing, N. Y. ; Lizzie married James Quinn, of Tarrytown; David C. is next in order of birth; Kate is the wife of William Fallon, of Tarrytown; Frank died while young; Mary is the wife of George Yerks, an undertaker of Tarrytown; John died in infancy; and Cornelius is a groceryman of Tarrytown.
At the age of two years David C. Drislane accompanied his parents to the town of Esopus, Ulster county, where the following fifteen years of his life were passed mostly in
attendance at the district schools of the neighborhood. After their removal to Orange county, he continued his studies for sometime, and for about eight years assisted in the cultivation of the farm. On leaving home he went to Newburg, N. Y., where he entered the grocery store of his brother, William E. , with whom he remained for about a year and a half, when he went to Tarrytown, being there employed by a brother for three years. He then went to Sing Sing, and formed a partnership with Robert Iynford in the grocery business,under the firm name of Drislane & Lynford,which connection was continued for a year and a half. Going to Peekskill, N. Y. , he and his brother, William E., carried on a grocery store under the style of Drislane Brothers, and in 1882 they also started another store in the same line at No. 249 Main street, Poughkeepsie, owning at the same time an establishment at Albany. This partnership lasted until 1887,when it was dissolved, our subject taking the store at Poughkeepsie, and his brother the one at Albany; the one at Peekskill had previously been sold.
In 1885 David C. Drislane was married to Miss Matilda M. Gregg, who was born in Poughkeepsie, a daughter of William Gregg, a contractor. In politics our subject is a radical Democrat, and in religion a member of the Roman Catholic Church. In 1889 he purchased his pleasant residence at No. 211 Mill street, and a year later bought his store building. His fair dealing and systematic methods of doing business have won him the confidence and respect of all with whom he has had occasion to transact business. His property has been acquired through the exercise of sound judgment, good business talents and industry.

The People, Resp'ts, v. William P. Cannon, App'lt

(Supreme Court, General Term, First Department, Filed February 18, 1898.)

1. Bottles—Constitutional Law.

Chapter 377 of the Laws of 1887, an act to protect the owners of bottles, as amended by chapter 181 of the Laws of 1888, is constitutional.

2. Same—Good Faith Not A Defense.

The fact that the defendant purchased the bottles in question in the due course of business, and without knowledge as to the true owner, is not a defense to him upon an indictment under this statute.

3. Same.

The act does not place unreasonable restrictions upon the lawful business of dealers in bottles.

Appeal by the defendant from a judgment of conviction of a misdemeanor rendered against him in the court of general sessions in and for the city and county of New York.

A. W. Tenney, for app'lt; Thomas C. K Ecclesine, for resp'ts.

Lawrence, J.—The defendant was tried and convicted of a misdemeanor before the recorder and a jury for having in his possession twenty-five bottles with the following words and figures blown or impressed thereon, to wit: "A. Liebler Bottling Co. Registered, 402 and 404 W. 126th St, N. Y.," and a monogram of the letters "A. L. B. Co."

He was sentenced to pay a fine of $12.50, and to be imprisoned in the penitentiary for a term of sixty days.

The indictment under which the defendant was tried and convicted was found under the second section of the act entitled 'An act to protect the owners of bottles, boxes, syphons and kegs used in the sale of soda water, mineral or aerated waters, porter, ale, cider, ginger ale, milk, cream, small beer, lager beer, weiss beer, beer, white beer or other beverages," being chapter 377 of the Laws of 1887, as amended by chapter 181 of the Laws of 1888.

The first section of the act of 1887, as amended, provides that, "any and all persons and corporations engaged in manufacturing, bottling or selling soda waters * * * lager beer, weiss beer, etc. * * * in bottles, syphons etc., with his, ber, its or their name, or names, or other marks or devices, branded, stamped, engraved, etched, blown, impressed, orotherwise produced upon such bottles, etc., used by him, her, it or them, mav file in the office of the clerk of the county in which his, her, its or their principal place of business is situated, and also in the office of the secretary of state, a description of the name or names, marks or devices, so used by him, her, it or them respectively, and cause such description to be printed once in each week, for three weeks successively, in a newspaper published in the county in which said notice may have been filed as aforesaid, except that in the city and county of New York, and the citv of Brooklyn, in the county of Kings, such publication shall \>e made for three weeks, successively, in two daily newspapers, published in the cities of New York and Brooklyn, respectively."

Section 2 of said act, under which this indictment is found, is as follows:

"It is hereby declared to be unlawful for any person or persons, corporation or corporations, to fill with soda water, mineral or aerated waters, porter, ale, cider, ginger ale, milk, cream, beer, small beer, lager beer, weiss beer, white beer, or other beverages, or with medicine, medical preparations, perfumeiy, compounds or mixtures, any bottle, box, syphon, tin or keg, so marked or distinguished, as aforesaid, with or by any name, mark or device, of which a description shall have been filed or published, as provided in § 1 of this act, or to deface, erase, obliterate, cover up, orotherwise remove or conceal any such name, mark or device thereon, or to sell, buy, give, take or otherwise dispose of or traffic in the same, without the written consent of or unless the same shall have been purchased from Hie person or persons, corporation or corporations, whose mark or device shall be, or shall have been in or upon the bottle, box, sy])hon, tin or keg so filled, trafficked in, used or handled as aforesaid.

"Any person or persons, or corporations, offending against the provisions of this section shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall be punished for the first offense by imprisonment not less than ten days, nor more than one year, or by a fine of fifty ■cents for each and every such bottle, box, syphon, tin or keg so filled, sold, used, disposed of, bought or trafficked in, or by both such fine and imprisonment, and for each subsequent offense by imprisonment not less than twenty days nor more than one year, or by a fine of not less than one dollar nor more than five dollars for each and every bottle, box, syphon, tin and keg so filled, sold, used, disposed of, bought or trafficked in, or by both such fine -and imprisonment, in the discretion of the magistrate before whom the offense shall be tried."

Upon the trial, a stipulation between the People and the defendant was read in evidence, which is as follows:

1. The defendant, William P. Cannon, now is, and, at all the times herein mentioned, was a dealer in second-hand articles, to wit: in second-hand bottles in the city and county of New York.

2. In the month of September, 1887, the A. Liebler Bottling Company was duly organized and incorporated under and by virtue of the laws of the state of New York, to wit: pursuant to and in conformity with the act of the legislature of the state of New York, passed on the 17th day of February, 1848, entitled "An act to authorize the formation of corporations for manufacturing, mining, mechanical or chemical purposes," and the several acts of the legislature amendatory thereof; and said corporation was so as aforesaid organized and incorporated under the corporate name and style, "A. Liebler Bottling Company."

3. At all the times mentioned herein, the said corporation has had, and now has, its principal place of business in the city and county of New York; and, at all said times, has been and is now engaged in bottling, selling and delivering lager beer, soda waters .and aerated waters, in bottles, with its name and certain marks and devices blown and impressed thereon.

4. Prior to the 1st day of March, 1888, the said corporation did duly file in the office of the clerk of the county of New York, and also in the office of the secretary of state of the state of New York, a description of the name, marks and devices so used by it, and did duly cause said description to be printed and published for three weeks successively in two daily newspapers published in the said city of New York, to wit: in " The Daily Register,'" and in the "New York Journal of Commerce" as provided by a certain act of the legislature of this state, entitled "An act to protect the owners of bottles, boxes, syphons and kegs used in the sale of soda water, mineral or aerated waters, porter, ale, cider, ginger ale, milk, cream, small beer.lager beer, weiss beer, beer, white beer, or other beverages," passed May 18, 1887, and known as chapter 377 of the Laws of 1887.

5. That the description of the name, marks and devices so filed and published as aforesaid is and was as follows, to wit: "A Liebler Bottling Co., Registered, 402 and 404 W. 126th street, N. Y.," and a monogram of the letters "A L B. Co."

6. On the 30th day of September, 1890, at the city and county of New York aforesaid, the said defendant, William P. Cannon, had in his possession, and there was then and there found in his possession, twenty-five certain bottles which, and each of which were and was then and there marked and distinguished with and by the name of the said corporation and the said marks and devices of which a description had been filed and published as aforesaid, and upon which and each of which said bottles there was then and there the said name, marks and devices of the said corporation, as above described, blown and impressed.

7. Said corporation has never given or granted to any person or persons, corporation or corporations, a written or oral consent that said person or persons, corporation or corporations, or any one, could or should sell, buy, give, take, or otherwise dispose of, or traffic in, any bottles having blown and impressed upon them the name, marks and devices aforesaid.

8. Said corporation has never sold or given away any bottle or bottles having blown and impressed upon them the name, marks and devices aforesaid.

9. The said defendant, William P. Cannon, prior to the 30th day of September, 1890, purchased, at the city and county of New York, the said twenty-five bottles.

10. When said defendant so purchased said twenty-five bottles he did not then know in what manner or from whom said bottles had been obtained by said person from whom he purchased the same.

11. Said twenty-five bottles were purchased as aforesaid by said defendant in the open market, in the same manner and way in which he was accustomed to purchase bottles in the course of his business as a dealer in second hand bottles, to wit, from any one bringing bottles to his place of business for sale.

12. None of said twenty-five bottles were in existence prior tc* the 1st day of April, 1888.

The only other proof presented upon the trial was the evidence of one Linker, a detective, who testified that on the 20th day of September he found in the possession of the defendant twentyfive bottles, which were then produced and admitted in evidence. Thereupon the prosecution rested, and the defendant's counsel moved that the jury be directed to acquit the defendant on the ground that the facts proved have shown the commission of no crime by the defendant, for the reason that the statute declaring it to be a misdemeanor to use or traffic in bottles so marked as indicated is unconstitutional, and that its provisions are in violation of the provisions of the constitution which secure to every man the right to his property, the right to keep it, and not to have it taken away from him without due process of law.

The defendant's counsel also asked the court to dismiss the indictment and acquit the defendant on the further ground that the acts under which the defendant is indicted place restrictions upon lawful and legitimate business, and prefer one class of business to another, which is against public policy and is unconstitutional. He also asked the court to dismiss the indictment and acquit the defendant on the further ground that the acts under which the indictment had been found are unconstitutional in authorizing the searching of defendant's premises, and the seizure and removal therefrom of said twenty-five bottles by virtue of a search warrant, when said bottles had not been stolen or purloined, but had been purchased and paid for by the defendant in the open market, and in the regular course of his business.

These several motions were denied, and proper exceptions taken to the ruling of the recorder. The defendant was then examined as a witness in his own behalf, and having testified as to his business, and its location, further stated that he purchased the

twenty-five bottles in question prior to September 30, 1890; that he did not know from whom he purchased them; that he did not purchase them from the A. Liebler Bottling Company, nor did he know how the person from whom he purchased them became possessed of them. He further testified that he purchased the bottles in the course of his business, and in the open market •

The defendant then rested and the court was asked by his counsel, upon the facts conceded in the stipulation as well as upon the facts established by the oral evidence in the case, to charge the jury that the act of the legislature under which the indictment was framed is unconstitutional, and that therefore the defendant had committed no crime.

Upon the grounds stated in his original motion to dismiss, he again asked the court to advise the jury to acquit, and on the same ground he also asked the court to dismiss the indictment, and acquit and discharge the defendant

These several requests being refused, exception was duly taken to such refusal, ana after the charge by the recorder, the jury found the defendant guilty, and the judgment already referred to was pronounced against him.

As long ago as 1847, the legislature passed an act in relation to the sale of bottles used by the manufacturers of mineral waters, and others, which, after providing that the descriptions of the bottles should be filed in the office of the secretary of state, and of the clerk of any county in which said articles should be bottled, or sold, and for the publication in a newspaper of the description of the name and marks so used and sold, imposed a penalty upon any person who should sell any bottles marked or stamped as in the first section of the act described, and gave a right of action therefor to the person whose mark shall be stamped on the bottles so sold, who should have complied with the provisions of the first section of the act, and any bottle dealer or keeper of a junk shop who should purchase such bottle, from any person, was made liable to the penalties imposed by the second section.

The act of 1847 was amended by chapter 117 of the Laws of 1860, which declared it to be unlawful for any person, or persons, thereafter, without written consent of the owner thereof, to fill with mineral waters, etc., any such bottle so marked or stamped, or to sell, dispose of, buy or traffic in any such bottles so marked or stamped, etc., and, in addition to the penalty prescribed by the previous act, it was provided that: "The fact of any person other than the rightful owner thereof, without such written permission, * * * using such bottles for the sale therein of any mineral water or other beverage, shall be presumptive evidence of (lie unlawful use and purchase of such bottles;" and the section went on to provide that any owner, or agent of such owner, who should make oath or affirmation that he had reason to believe that any of his bottles stamped and registered as aforesaid were being unlawfully used by any person, or persons, selling or manufacturing mineral water, etc., or that any junk dealer or vendor of bottles shall have any of such bottles secreted upon his premises, or ia any other place, the magistrate might issue a search warrant to obtain the same, and should have power in a summary way tobring the person accused before him, and if the magistrate should find on summary examination that such person had disobeyed or violated any of the provisions of the act, he might proceed to impose a line, and if the same be not paid to commit said person to prison for a term not to exceed fifteen days.

Under this last act the case of Mullins v. The People, 24 N. y., 399, arose, and the only remark that we find in regard to the constitutionality of the act under consideration was made by Selden, Ch. J., in delivering the opinion of the court, in which, after stating "that at common law the presumption from the facts proved would clearly be that Mullins came lawfully into possession of the bottles," the learned judge said: "Hence, although in view of the interpretation which I have given to the statute, there is no objection to its constitutionality, still I see no evidence in the case upon which the conviction can properly rest." And the court held that the judgnient appealed from reversing the conviction of the magistrate should be affirmed. This case, which is referred to by the counsel for the People in his points, gives us very little aid in determining the question presented on this appeal. It was, however, held by Mr. Justice Barrett, in Re Grifenhagen, N. Y. Law Journal, May 27, 1890, that the act under which this defendant was indicted was constitutional.

In the case of the People ex rel. Fellows v. Hogan, 123 N. Y., 219; 33 St. Rep., 48, the court of appeals, in disposing of the case, held that it was needless for them to consider the constitutional question, as to which they expressed no opinion.

It will be observed that this case does not arise under § 4 of the acts of 1887 and 1888, relating to the proceedings by the magistrate upon the application for the issuance of a search warrant, and the only question which is presented by the record before ua is whether the second section of the act, and amendatory act, prohibiting the selling, buying, giving, taking or trafficking in said bottles without the written consent of the persons from whom they shall have been purchased is constitutional.

Although it may seem harsh that an innocent vendee of bottles, stamped and registered as required by the acts, should be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, we cannot say that the provisions of the second'section are in conflict with the constitution. It does not deprive the defendant of his property without due process of law, because upon the fair construction of the stipulation upon which this cause was tried the bottles in question had been the property of the said corporation, which had never given a written or oral consent that any one should sell, buy, etc., the same, nor had said corporation sold or given away any bottles having blown and impressed upon them the names, marks and devices referred to in the stipulation and in the indictment The fact that the defendant purchased the property in the course of his business, and in open market, cannot avail him as a defense in this action, there being no such thing as a market overt in this country.

The defendant, therefore, could obtain no better title to the property than that which was possessed by the person from whom he purchased them, and we do not think it was unconstitutional for the legislature to declare, as it has done, by the third section of the act as amended, that the possession of the bottles having the name, mark or device thereon of such owner, without his written consent, should be presumptive evidence of the unlawful use, purchase and traffic in such bottles, eta Nor do we think that it can be successfully urged that the acts in question placed unreasonable restrictions upon the defendant's lawful business. It is conceded by the record that the filing and publication of the marks was complete prior to the 1st day of March, 1888, and that none of these bottles were in existence before April 1, 1888, and that the purchase was made by Cannon prior to the 30th day of September, 1890, on which day the bottles were found in his possession. We think the counsel for the People is therefore right in his contention, that the only restriction which was placed upon the conduct of the plaintiffs business is similar to that which exists in an ordinary trade-mark case, which prohibits one party from selling goods bearing the trade-mark of or the colorable imitation of the trade-mark of another party. Neither does the fact that the defendant purchased the property in question without any criminal intent or guilty knowledge aid on this appeal. See People v. Kibler, 106 NT Y., 321; 8 St. Rep, 707; People v. West, 106 N. Y., 293; 8 St Rep., 713.

The cases of the People v. Marx, 99 N. Y., 377; Matter of Application of Jacobs, 98 id., 98; The People v. Gillson, 109 id., 389; 16 St Rep., 185. and similar cases relied upon by the appellant's counsel, do not, in our opinion, have any application to the case at bar, for the reason that in those cases the court proceeded upon the fact that the obnoxious legislative enactment prohibited a branch of industry not injurious to the community, and not fraudulently conducted, solely for the reason that it competed with another. No such element exists in this case.

The object of the legislation under consideration was not only to protect the owners of bottles stamped as specified in the act, but to prevent the public from being imposed upon, by having those bottles filled or sold, or bought by other parties who might use them and palm them off upon the public as being filled by the owners who had registered them, or by parties who had lawfully derived their title from such owners. Although the act may in some of its features seem to be harsh, in regard to an innocent purchaser, we cannot in the language of Andrews, J., in delivering the opinion in Bertholf v. OReilly, 74 N.Y., 516, pronounce a law invalid "for the reason simply that it violates our notions of justice, is oppressive and unfair in its operation, because in the opinion of some, or all of the citizens of the state, it is not justified by public necessity or designed to promote the public welfare. We repeat that if it violates no constitutional provision, it is valid and must be obeyed. The remedy for unjust or unwise legislation not obnoxious to constitutional objections is to be found St. Rep., Vol. XLILT. 55

Indian wine bitters & rheumatic drops. For sale by all druggists.The greatest blood purifier and liver and kidney cure in the world prepared by Dr. James M. Solomon, Jr., Attleboro, Mass
Dr. David Jayne David Jayne was born in Stroudsburg, PA in 1799. In 1818 He took up the study of medicine at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. After completing his studies he began to practice as a rural family doctor in Salem, New Jersey in 1822. Apparently, he first introduced his own medicines around 1830, and he was first listed as an M.D. in Philadelphia in 1839. An ad in late 1850 listed the firms address at No. 8 South Third Street; at the bottom it added that "after October, 1850, the store would be removed into the new eight story granite building, 84 Chestnut Street.

Jayne sold various nostrums including a "Tonic Vermifuge" for the expulsion of worms. He gave away copies of "Jayne's Medical Almanac & Guide to Good Health" to prospective users of his many preparations. The almanacs contained a picture of a big-eyed worm along with a lot of advice about how to stay in good health (mainly by buying his concoctions).

In 1846 his two sons: David W. and Eben C. joined him and the business was known as David Jayne & Sons. In 1855, Dr Jayne issued a statement that "The manufacture and sale of my family medicines, heretofore conducted in my name, will hereafter be conducted under the firm name of Dr. D. Jayne & Sons, to whom all letters relating to the sale of my medicines should be addressed." From 1860 to 1866 the business was probably run by his sons. He was serving as president of the Commonwealth Insurance Company during this period. He apparently died in 1866. It was said that he left about $3,000,000 to his family who continued to run his business.

The business called D. Jayne & Sons was alive and well past the turn of the century. From 1870 to 1884, it was being run by Eben C. Jayne and John K. Walker. Then, from 1885 till after 1905, Eben was running the business alone. In 1878, Eben C. Jayne (as a member of D. Jayne & Son) registered the brand name as a Trade Mark (TM #5,741). He indicated that the brand name had been in use since 1845. The majority of the biographical information above was obtained from the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Other sources included the Wilsons' book, and Holcombe's book.

After examining over fifty years worth of Jayne's Almanacs and ads, I've found that the Jayne's Hair Preparations were in production during approximately the following periods. Jayne sold Alibert's Oleaginous Hair Tonic as an Agent between 1837 and 1840. In January of 1840, he claimed to be its sole Preparer and Proprietor. It was probably during that year that he called it Jayne's Oleaginous Hair Tonic.   Eventually, he changed the name of his product to just Jayne's Hair Tonic and discontinued selling Alibert's entirely.  According to the 1849 Almanac, the label of the Dr Jayne's Hair Tonic bottle had before and after pictures with the dates September 1839 and April 1841. His Tonic could have very well been in production that early. The Hair Tonic was in production until after the turn of the century. Jayne's American Hair Dye was being made prior to 1849, and was discontinued around 1867 or 1868. Jayne's Liquid Hair Dyes were started around 1857, and also lasted into the mid-60s.{Text courtesy of "Hair Raising Stories"}


John Carnrick, of Reed & Carnrick, New York, has done some very meritorious work in the realm of pharmaceutical chemistry. A native of Sand Lake, Rensselaer County, New York, he spent his boyhood in Troy and came to New York at the age of 17. After teaching school for a while he took a course in medicine, but instead of graduating he opened a drug store in Jersey City, and commenced the study of pharmacy and chemistry with a view to improving the palatable qualities of medicines. Thus John Carnrick may be said to be one of the pioneers in the field of what is known as elegant pharmacy.The original drug store was operated by Mr. Carnrick under the name of Gardner & Carnrick. This was afterward changed to Carnrick & Andrus, and subsequently to Reed & Carnrick, a name now famous all over the world. Through all the changes of name it was Mr. Carnrick's genius as a chemist that made the success of the house possible. The preparations which he invented are used to-day by the medical profession in every civilized country on the globe. He has always in the introduction of his preparations to the medical profession given to them every detail of manufacture and invited them to his laboratories to examine every process and manipulation, and has always insisted that their introduction should be in the hands of the medical profession. Mr. Carnrick claims the honor of having introduced elixirs as a class of pharmaceutical products over thirty years ago. Among a few of the principal preparations he introduced are Lactopeptine, Maltine, Peptonoids, Peptenzyme, Protonuclein and Soluble Food. One feature of Mr. Carnrick's business method has been the organization of several companies to carry on the sale of his various discoveries. Among these are the New York Pharmacal Association, the Maltine Manufacturing Company, and the Arlington Chemical Company. The preparations manufactured by these companies were popularized by Reed & Carnrick. The reason for the success of Reed & Carnrick's preparations is probably that Mr. Carnrick makes it a rule not to put upon the market a preparation of his invention unless it fills a want and is in his belief actually superior to anything of the sort previously discovered. Large fortunes have been made from his discoveries, one man having made from the manufacture of one of these preparations something like $2,000,000, it is said. Mr. Carnrick, though a wealthy man, has not reaped so largely as those to whom he has sold. He lives comfortably in a beautiful home on Park avonne with his family, to whom he is devoted. His place of business is unpretentious. It is located at 428 West Broadway, New York.  FEED YOUR PATIENTS. The^ need a highly nutritious, easily assimilated food. contains besides the nutritive elements of beef, gluten of wheat and nucleo-albumins, the enzymes of the digestive gland. As it does not irritate the stomach, and leaves no residue to enter the intestinal tract, it is indicated in all those conditions where artificial feeding is necessary, and is especially useful in Typhoid Fever, Vomiting of Pregnancy, and Diseases of the Digestive System.


The Kilmers of Binghamton, New York
~ By  John E. Golley 1997, Email:   [email protected]

 This is the history of a family, a "patent medicine" company and ultimately, of a city. The Kilmer family started out in the small village of Cobleskill, New York and through several generations, influenced the health and politics of the city of Binghamton and made their mark upon the world.....this is their story.

Dr. Sylvester Andral Kilmer, MD was born in Cobleskill, New York on December 19, 1840, one of eleven children of Daniel and Maria Shaver Kilmer. He attended the log school in Cobleskill, the Schoharie Academy and then the Warnerville and Richmondville Seminaries. At the age of eighteen, he entered the office of Dr. Scott, a prominent Allopathic physician in Schoharie County. Wishing to get away from the "one school" idea, he then studied with Dr. Downing who had been called the successful pioneer of Homeopathy in the Schoharie region of New York State. Dr. S. Andral Kilmer started his own practice of medicine as county physician at Barnerville, Schoharie County. Following through with the idea of a broad acquaintance with medicine and surgery, he studied Eclectic and Botanic Practice with Dr. Patrick of Wisconsin. He attended the preliminary and regular course of the Bellevue Hospital and Medical College in New York City, where he had instruction at the Eye and Ear Infirmary on Blackwell's Island and other hospitals. He also received a special practical course at the Philadelphia Lying-In-Charity Hospital, where he received instruction in Practical Obstetrics and Diseases of Women; he also received similar instruction at the Central Dispensary of Chicago. He received further instruction at the Philadelphia School of Operative Surgery under the special tutelage of the noted physician Dr. D. Hayes Agnew and he also had a diploma from the Bennett Medical College of Chicago. After a successful tour of medical lectures and practice in the West, he settled in Binghamton, New York.   In Binghamton, he was first employed in visiting Binghamton and the surrounding cities on advertised days, in which practice Dr. Kilmer was so famous and successful that he was soon enabled to begin erection of his Laboratory buildings for the preparation of his remedies, which became necessary to supply the ever increasing demand. In 1878 his brother, Jonas Kilmer, moved to Binghamton to run the business end of the proprietary medicine business, and in 1892, Jonas bought out Dr. S. Andral Kilmer's share of the business. Their first major laboratory and manufacturing plant was located at the corners of Chenango and Virgil Streets in Binghamton. Dr. Kilmer prepared many different medicines, some of which were Dr. Kilmer's Ocean Weed Heart Remedy, Female Remedy, Indian Cough and Consumption Cure, Autumn Leaf Extract, U & O Ointment and Prompt Parilla Pills, but the most well known remedy was Dr. Kilmer's Swamp Root Kidney Liver and Bladder Cure. Swamp Root contained Buchu leaves, Oil of Juniper, Oil of Birch, Colombo Root, Swamp-Sassafras, Balsam Copaiba, Balsam Tolu, Skullcap leaves, Venice Turpentine, Valerian Root, Rhubarb Root, Mandrake Root, Peppermint herb, Aloes, Cinnamon and sugar and contained approximately 9 to 10-1/2% alcohol.  In the years prior to Dr. Kilmer's sale of his interest in the proprietary medicine business, during its growth and increasing professional services, Dr. Kilmer kept looking for a place which included the peculiar properties required and known only to him. He located such a place in Osborne Hollow, situated approximately ten miles east of Binghamton, where there was a sulpho-phosphate spring. He induced the townspeople to rename the area Sanitaria Springs and at a cost of $100,000 he built a Sanitarium and Hydrotherapium in 1892. The outside grounds were a well-arranged system of natural parks and the buildings contained every modern convenience of their time including electric lights, steam heaters and elevators. In addition to the sulpho-phosphate spring, there were ten others including the Blue Lithia, Red Iron, Black Magnetic and Ferro-Manganese. All types of baths were in use summer and winter, including Sulphur, Turkish, Russian and Electric. Dr. Kilmer's son Ulysses was employed as Associate Superintendent and a daughter, Edith, was the Librarian. Another of Dr. S. Andral's brothers, Andrew G. Kilmer, gave up his life work as a teacher ( He had been Associate Principal of the Schoharie Academy, Vice-President of the Franklin Institute, Principal of the grade school in Cobleskill and Principle of the Academy in Bainbridge, New York. He also organized the academy in Schenevus, with much success.) and entered the business office of Dr. Kilmer and Company and later, was the Assistant Superintendent of the Sanitarium. Andrew Kilmer was my maternal grandmother, Alice Cooper Kisselburgh's great-grandfather. She and her sister used to visit him and Uncle Sylvester at the sanitarium in the summer when they were young. It was also around this time that Dr. S. Andral Kilmer began formally treating patients for cancer, both at the Sanitarium and also at his Cancertorium at 254 Conklin Avenue in Binghamton. He advertised his cancer cure nationally and would pay train fare to the Sanitarium upon commitment of a stay of three to six months to effect the cure. He advocated a homeopathic approach to the treatment of this disease , which involved a controlled diet, treatment with the different springs as well as a secret medicine which, after a time, would cause the cancer to be expelled from the body; they would literally fall off. My grandmother and her sister had both been witness to these treatments and witnessed the results first-hand, and swore that they had seen the eradications occur. Dr. Kilmer was decidedly against plasters, radium, x-rays and surgery on these cancers as he felt that not only did they injure the patient, but they caused the cancers to be harder to treat and might even cause them to spread. At this period of time in Binghamton, there was a very heated clash between the traditional medical doctors and the homeopathic doctors; they wouldn't even work in the same hospitals together. Dr. Kilmer had been trained in both practices, but leaned more toward the homeopathic and allopathic teachings. This fact, as well as his ties to the proprietary medicine business, keep him under constant scrutiny by the "old school" doctors of his time. His assertions of having a cure for [graphic]cancer, which they felt was impossible given his methods, made him the brunt of ridicule by his colleagues. He offered to share his knowledge in the non-surgical treatment of cancer with them, according to conversations his daughter Hattie Marguerite had with my grandmother, but was his help was refused and rebuffed, and he was so professionally ridiculed by his colleagues, that he took the secrets of his "cure" to his grave. The patients who were treated by Dr. Kilmer held him in high esteem, and he was treating patients three days before his death of a cerebral hemorrhage. He died in his home at 44 Beethoven Street in Binghamton on January 14, 1924. Whether or not he had a cure for cancer is open to conjecture - my grandmother and her sister would both state a resolute yes, however, testimonials and the like, especially of that era, quite often are at best questionable; my only thought is...what if?  Dr. S. Andral Kilmer and Jonas M. Kilmer had two other brothers who were also in business for themselves. Augustus Kilmer established the Kilmer Manufacturing Company in Newburgh, New York which manufactured baling ties and wire fencing. Another brother, Thomas J. Kilmer, was a physician in Schoharie, New York and several old bottles embossed with his name are known to exist.  Jonas M. Kilmer was also born in Cobleskill, New York on April 11, 1843. He was a graduate of the Bryant and Stratton Business College in Albany, after which he worked for a year in the general store of Joseph Taylor of Schoharie Court House, and then worked the next eighteen years in the mercantile business in New York City with several different firms, rising to important positions. His brother convinced him to move to Binghamton in 1881 where he ran the business end of the "patent medicine" business as an equal partner. In 1892 he bought out Dr. S. Andral Kilmer's interest in the company, though some would say he "swindled" his brother in the deal; the purchase price is unknown. Jonas' son, Willis Sharpe Kilmer became the Head of Advertising for the company, and business began to increase rapidly. The company was incorporated in 1909 as Dr. Kilmer & Company and had branch offices in New York, Chicago, Rio De Janeiro, Brazil and Kingston, Jamaica, West Indies. In 1899, Jonas Kilmer was elected Director of The People's Bank of Binghamton, in which capacity he served from October 2, 1899 until February 9, 1907, at which time he was elected President; he served in this capacity until his death. On December 4, 1907 he was chosen as a trustee of Binghamton Savings Bank and also served as President of the Binghamton Press from 1904 until his death. People's Bank merged with Broome County Trust Company on April 20, 1914 and became People's Trust Company. From 1893 to 1908, Jonas Kilmer also served as a member of the Board of Police Commissioners. Jonas Kilmer died in Binghamton in 1912, but not without first giving all the credit of the success of the family business to his son, Willis Sharpe Kilmer.  Willis Sharpe Kilmer was born in Brooklyn, New York on October 18, 1869. He graduated from Cornell University in 1880 and went to work in the family business. Willis was put in charge of the advertising department of Dr. Kilmer and Company, which lead to a swift increase in business. Advertising in the late 1800's was not the "science" that it is today and Willis Sharpe Kilmer was one of advertising's earliest pioneers. His first wife was Beatrice Richardson who's socially prominent father was one of the brightest executives in a fledgling newspaper advertising agency in New York City. Willis Kilmer had a more metropolitan upbringing than many of his peers and his relationship with Mr. Richardson and his family connections all helped benefit Willis and his new ideas. Dr. Kilmer and Company utilized all the forms of advertising of the day including painted wooden signs, posters and printed circulars, but with the entrance of Willis' leadership, began purchasing ad space in newspapers expounding the virtues of their numerous cures and they were amongst the fore-runners in printing Almanacs, which not only would list the normal items such as moon phases, best planting times and the like, but at every turn of the page, listed one or more of the products, printed testimonials for the same and helped diagnose "ailments" of which one of their products would "cure". The packaging of their products was also easily noticed on the shelf. For ease of finding the correct cure, their Heart Remedy had an embossed heart on it, Swamp Root Kidney Cure had a kidney embossed on it and so forth, and their packaging was bright orange with the likeness of a whiskered Dr. S. Andral Kilmer printed boldly on the front. The package also invited customers to write to Dr. Kilmer for advise and prescription, which, long after Dr. S. Andral Kilmer had sold his share of the business, caused Dr. Kilmer to initiate a lawsuit against his brother and nephew in which he accused Dr. Kilmer and Company of representing him as the physician in charge of their medical department and also, that they pretended to give medical advice and prescribe medicines for diseases which they pretended to diagnose. When a lower court ruled against Dr. Kilmer and Company, Willis pursued the suit in The Appellate Court, and in 1917, the decision against the company was reversed. It was Willis Sharpe Kilmer's advertising prowess as well as his "muscle" via political and professional contacts that made Swamp Root a household word. When other patent medicines were losing popularity due to The Pure Food and Drug Act as well as an increased respect for medical science, Swamp Root was still filling the Kilmer coffers. When asked what Swamp Root was good for, Willis Kilmer once replied, "About a million dollars a year!". Patent medicine wasn't the only thing Willis Sharp Kilmer was involved in. On April 11, 1904, Mr. Kilmer founded The Binghamton Press, which became a very well-respected newspaper in the country. It has been alleged, although never proven, that he started the newspaper for the purpose of putting The Binghamton Evening Herald out of business and he could also control the advertising of various patent medicines and any articles condemning the same. There were several people such as Samuel Hopkins Adams, who were very much against patent medicines and were lobbying very hard for the passage of The Pure Food and Drug Act. Mr. Kilmer was very successful in "squashing" their stories and did eventually put The Evening Herald, run by his long-time personal and political enemy Guy Beardsley, out of business. Mr. Beardsley later sued Willis Sharpe Kilmer charging conspiracy to put him out of business; Beardsley lost the suit.  Willis Sharpe Kilmer was also a very fine judge of horses. The family mansion is still located on Riverside Drive in Binghamton, and on the surrounding grounds, Mr. Kilmer built Sun Briar Court, which had a 1/5 mile indoor track, an outdoor track connected to a half-mile circular track, 100 fire-proof stalls and the main stable included offices, quarters and a clubhouse. The Kilmer racing colors were brown, green and orange and he owned many fine horses; Genie- the son of Man O' War, Sun Briar, Sun Beau and Exterminator, which won the 1918 Kentucky Derby and was the leading money winner for four straight seasons. Sun Beau held the American record for money won until Sea Biscuit broke the record in 1939. Mr. Kilmer owned a large estate on the Rappahannock River in Virginia known as Remlik (Kilmer spelled backwards) as well as a game preserve near Binghamton called Sky Lake and he was a pioneer in forest and game preservation in New York as well as Virginia. He established the Kilmer Pathological Laboratory in Binghamton and started Binghamton's first nine hole golf course, which later became the Binghamton Country Club. Willis Sharpe Kilmer died of pneumonia on July 12, 1940 leaving an estate estimated at $10 to $15 million dollars, and is interred in the family mausoleum in Floral Park Cemetery in Binghamton, New York. After World War II, his second wife, Sarah Jane Wells, sold the rights to make and manufacture Swamp Root to Medtech Laboratories of Cody, Wyoming. The eight story Kilmer Building, built in 1902 after the original building was damaged by fire, still stands at 141 Chenango Street and Swamp Root was still on the shelves of the E. C. McKallor Drug Company in Binghamton in 1983 - it can still be ordered today, more than almost 120 years after it was first produced, a testament to the advertising skill of Willis Sharpe Kilmer and the strength of the Kilmer name and reputation.

Binghamton and Broome County, New York, Volumes I, II and III, The Lewis Historical Publishing Company, 1924  Broome County Historical Society Newsletter, Spring 1982  The Binghamton Press, June 30, 1983  The Sunday Press, July 24, 1983  The Binghamton Press, July 13, 1940  The Binghamton Press, January 14, 1924  The History of the Kilmer Family In America, Rev. C. H. Kilmer, 1897  Lost Landmarks of Broome County, New York, Marjory Barnum Hinman, 1983  One For A Man, Two For A Horse, Gerald Carson, 1961  Willis Sharpe Kilmer's Use of Advertising in the Promotion of Swamp Root, Annette Bakic, 1981  Dr. Kilmer's Swamp Root Almanac, 1930  Dr. Kilmer's Swamp Root Almanac, 1941  Dr. Kilmer's Red Book of Hope  Valley of Opportunity