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Doctor" John Clarke (1773–1846)
American
businessman who played a major role in the development of Saratoga Springs, New York in the 1800s. Usually called "Doctor Clarke", in fact the "Doctor" was a courtesy title.[1]

Born in Yorkshire England, Clarke immigrated to America and settled in New York City. In 1819 he opened the first soda fountain there.[1] In 1823 he purchased land in Saratoga Springs with partner Thomas Lynch.[2] The property included the Congress Spring in what is now Congress Park, at that time a swamp.[3] Clarke drained the swamp to create a park and built a bottling plant there. In 1825 Lynch and Clarke began bottling Congress Spring Water. Lynch died in 1833 and Clarke continued the business alone.

Congress Spring pavilion in 2013

Clarke built a doric pavilion to cover Congress Spring, which was torn down in 1876 when Frederick Law Olmsted redesigned the park and reconstructed in the 1970s.[3]

Clarke planned and named Circular Street in Saratoga Springs,[1] and in 1832 he built a Greek Revival mansion there overlooking Congress Park.[4] He donated land to build an Episcopal church on the south-east corner of Circular Street and Union Avenue (then called East Congress Street). A change of plans resulted in the location moving to Washington Street where the Bethesda Episcopal Church was built in 1842. However the original plan caused the site to be christened Temple Grove,[5] and later the Temple Grove Ladies Seminary, a predecessor of Skidmore College was constructed on the site.

Clarke began to accumulate land east of Congress Park from the time he arrived in Saratoga Springs. At his death he owned nearly 1,000 acres (400 ha).

Dr. Clarke was married to Mrs. Eliza (Bryer) White, widow of Charles White, with whom he had three children, Eliza(Sep 6, 1829−Apr 25, 1894), Thomas (d.August 16, 1880[6] ), and George B. He died on May 6, 1846.[5] and is buried in the Gideon Putnam Burying Ground in Saratoga Springs.[7] Eliza first married Isaac Thayer and after his death in 1852 Cornelius Sheehan, and continued to occupy the house on Circular street

CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING CO. {SEE CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING BELOW}

CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRINGS

The Congress Spring. This spring is located in Congress Park, opposite the southern end of Congress Hall. There is an artistic and very beautifu1 pavilion built over it to protect tne visitors from sun and rain, and, as it stands next to the sidewalk and near Broadway, it is easily found. The boxed and bottled waters are familiar to druggists in every State, and over all Europe. it is most generally known and used of any of the Saratoga springs, and has probably effected more cures of the diseases for which its waters are a specific, than any other mineral spring in America. It was discovered by a party of hunters in 1792, and was forthwith named Congress Springs, in honor of John Taylor Gilman, member of Congress from Exeter, New Hampshire, who wag one of the party.As soon as the properties of the water became generally known, the small supply obtainable from the natural overflow led the inhabitants to attempt making a reservoir. This, to their dismay, resulted in a total stoppage of the spring, which continued for some time. One of the first settlers, Gideon Putnam by name, while prospecting in the vicinity, observed bubbles rising from the bed of the brook, near whose margin the Congress Spring had formerly flowed. He dug a new channel for the stream, and, to his delight, found the lost waters bubbling up in their original purity. The spring was soon afterward rudely tubed with plank, and in 1823 it was first bottled for exportation by Dr. John Clarke, of New York, who purchased the spring and adjacent lands from the Livingston family, who held it under an ancient grant. In 1842 the spring was retubed. An ex ? cavation was made which revealed the rock whence the water issued. The tubing was placed in the most careful manner, and by means of packing with clay a large supply of water was ob tained. The property continued in the hands of Dr. Clarke's heirs or their executors until 1865, when it was purchased by a company incorporated under the name of the " Congress and Empire Spring Company." This company owns the beautiful semicircular valley in which the Congress and Columbian Springs are found. The sides of this valley are still covered with forest  trees, amid whose towering trunks are shaded walks, which af« ford a gay and fashionable promenade for the thousands of visitors who throng the great hotels near by. In connection with a recent analysis of Congress Spring, Prof. C. F. Chandler remarks, that " the superior excellence of this water is due to the fact that it contains, in the most desirable proportions, those substances which produce its agreeable flavor and satisfactory medicinal effects?neither-holding them in excess nor lacking any constituent to be desired in this class of waters. As a cathartic water, its almost entire freedom from iron should r.ecornmend it above all others, many of which contain so much of this ingredient as to seriously impair their usefulness." Prof. Chandler also remarks, that a comparison of his analysis with the analysis made by Dr. John H. Steel, in 1832, proves that the Congress water still retains its original strength, and all the virtues which established its well-merited reputation.

The Empire Spring.  This spring is one of the first-class, and is located in the shallow valley that runs through the village, and in the neighbor hood of other noted springs. To reach it from Congress Hall, follow Broadway to the north to Lake Avenue, the fourth turn on the right. Follow this street down hill to the second turn on the left. This is Spring Street, and the large bottling house of the spring will be seen directly opposite the end of the street The spring is in a pavilion before the building. For full and reliable information concerning this spring, call at the office of the Congress and Empire Spring Company, near Congress Hall. Although the existence of mineral water in this locality has been known for a long time, it was not until 1846 that any one thought it worth the necessary expense of excavation and tub ing. At that time the Messrs. Robinson owned the property, and determined to tube the spring. The rock was struck twelve feet below the surface of the earth, and so copious was the flow of water that the tubing proved to be a work of unusual difficulty. It was, however, successfully accomplished, and the water flowed in great abundance and purity. It soon attracted the attention of medical men, and was found to possess curative properties which rendered it available in diseases which had not before been affected by Saratoga waters. It has proved itself adapted to a wide range of cases, especially of a chronic nature, and its peculiar value has become a well-recognized fact among medical men. Its general properties closely resemble the Congress, and it was for a time known as the New Congress Spring. The spring is now owned by the Congress and Empire Spring Company, which was formed by the consolidation of two other companies in 1865. 

SYRACUSE EXCELSIOR SPRING  LINK >>  SYRACUSE SPRINGS

HOPKINS' CHALYBEATE WATER
This Water is obtained from a well upon the farm of Mr.William Hopkins, in Baltimore County, Maryland, within 15 miles of the City of Baltimore, and 1 mile of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Rail Road. The well was dug in 1855, and is 80 feet deep ; the Water standing within 8 feet of the surface of the earth. Numerous experiments made in order to test the supply of Water, only confirm the
opinion that it is inexhaustible.
The soil in which the well is dug, is a tenacious Red Clay, variegated with frequent strata of Magnesian Earth, and the Water rises through the original Sand Stone Rock. Its temperature when drawn from the well is 52° Far.
This Water has been extensively used by invalids for nearly two years, and has acquired great celebrity as a cuarative in Dyspepsia, loss of Appetite, Indigestion, Extreme Debility, and in various Atonic and Anemic conditions; through the instrumentality of those who have been signally benefited by its use.
Its most prominent ingredients "1 Carbonate of Protoxyd according to a recent qualitative y of Iron, and analysis are, j Free Carbonic Acid Gas.
It also contains . . . Carbonate of Magnesia, Chloride of Magnesium, Chloride of Potassium, Chloride of Calcium, Carbonate of Lime, a trace, And what is very remarkable, no Sulphur. A Water combining such ingredients will at once be recognized by Physicians as a valuable Remedial Agent, and being pleasant to the taste, and no ingredient contra-indicating its use as a common drink, it will doubtless become a popular Beverage.

SAMUAL HANBURY SMITH, 1810-1894
SMITH, SAMUEL HANBURY, New York, was born at Willenhall, Staffordshire, England, Feb. 15th, 1810. In 1831, after at hree years' course, lie was graduated M. D. from University coll., London, taking honors in class of nature and treatment of disease; during the ensuing summer and fall was a student at Angers, France, under Billard, and shortly thereafter established himself in Stockholm, where in 1S34, at the request of the renowned Prof. Berzelius, lie accepted the position of senior phys. to the Cholera hosp. during the great epidemic which afflicted that city dining that year. While residing in Stockholm he was a student in the Royal med. and chirurg. institute, and from that institution received in 1S40 the degree of chirurgio magislcr. When he determined to emigrate to the United States in 1847, m addition to being unanimously elected a fellow of the Swedish med. soc, of which he had been an active working member for several years, he was presented with a certificate of his graduation as master of surgery from the Royal medico-chirurg. institute of Stockholm, and of his membership in the Royal coll. of health. This certificate, which was signed by every member of the faculty of the institute, highly recommended him to the profession as a man, a scholar and a doctor. Some idea of the estimation in which he was held by the profession in Stockholm may be formed from the fact that Prof. Berzelius arose from a sick-bed to come down to the steamer to bid him farewell; while Prof. Retzius, as long as he lived, maintained an active correspondence with him, and published extracts from Dr. Smith's letters in Hygica, the organ of the med. soc. in Sweden.

CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING CO. {SEE CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING FURTHER UP PAGE}

THE PAVILION SPRING.

Pavilion spring is situated in the valley a few rods east of Broadway, between Lake avenue and Caroline street, and directly at the head of Spring avenue, and is reached from Broadway by taking Lake avenue or Caroline street to the second block. It is one of the best of the far-famed springs of Saratoga.

The shaft has been re-excavated ten feet deeper to the rock: the spring re-tubed, the course of the brook (which flowed through the grounds) changed, well-arranged walks laid out, and a tasteful pavilion built over the fountain. The shaft of the spring having been carried out through the hard pan to the rock below has greatly improved the water. Its minerals have been nearly doubled in strength and increased in number, and the fountain now stands second to none for medicinal and commercial purposes in this justly-celebrated mineral valley. This deep tubing will therefore secure a uniformity in the strength and quality of the water which cannot be obtained in springs which are tubed near the surface of the ground.

BALLSTON SPA MINERAL WATER / ARTESIAN SPRING CO.
 
Ballston Spa derives its celebrity from the mineral springs, which flow here in great abundance. The artesian springs flow, from a depth of six hundred feet, through solid rock
A New-York correspondent of a Western journal writes that the new Artesian Lithia Spring, recently discovered at Ballston Spa, in this State, has given new life to that village, and adds that during last Summer a large portion of the visitors to the springs at Saratoga 

 

A scientific writer stated “the original spring issues from a bed of stiff blue clay and gravel, which lies near a stratum of slate nearly on a level with the brook or rivulet which runs through the town.” When the Artesian Litha Spring was discovered as a ditch was being dug near Saratoga Avenue, it first gushed oil, supposedly superior to that of the Pennsylvania oil region. However, some time later the spring began spouting water every third day until it was tubed.

HATHORN SPRING {SEE ABOVE}

CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING CO. {SEE CONGRESS & EMPIRE SPRING FURTHER UP PAGE}

THE WASHINGTON SPRING CO. BALLSTON SPA N.Y.
Situated near the railroad embankment in the centre of the village, north and south. This was drilled to a depth of six hundred and twelve feet in the summer of 1868.

The proprietors, Simon B. Conde and John Brown, have recently erected a fine building over the spring, and have a tract of seven acres of land, including a portion of the flat, and extending up the wooded slope to the fair-grounds. Mr. Conde, who has sunk most of these wells in Ballston Spa, has given considerable study to this work, and is understood to have been the author of the article in "Appleton's Encyclopedia" upon artesian wells. His skill and judgment have established for him a wide reputation as a successful operator. The following is the analysis of the water of this spring, and it ought to be added that it was made from a specimen
taken before the work was fairly finished, and before it was protected from the intrusion of fresh water, as it is now. A new analysis would show still greater strength and purity:

THE ST. REGIS SULPHUR WATER OF MASSENA, ST. LAWRENCE CO., N. Y.
                 By Ferdinand F. Mayer. .

"The springs are on the verge of the Raquette River, a broad and rapid stream, about a mile from Massena village, which is situated on the Grass River. These two streams, of about equal volume, run almost parallel for many miles, and empty into the St. Lawrence opposite Cornwall Island. The St. Lawrence is only four miles distant from the springs, in a straight line, and the nearest station, on the Great Northern Road from Ogdensburg to Rouse's Foint, is at Potsdam, fifteen miles distant. As early as the close of the last century these waters were discovered by surveyors, and they saw the oozy ground around them filled with the hoofprints of the moose and deer, who visited there on account of the saline qualities of the fountains. The Indians had used them as remedies for ulcerations, it is said, as long as tradition can reach back; and as early as 1815, white people occasionally sought relief from cutaneous diseases by their use. The first settler there was Captain John Polly, a soldier in the second war for Independence, and there he was yet residing at the time of Portfolio's visit. They had a long and pleasant interview, and the captain gave our friend a graphic history of his adventures.

Continued below........................................................................

In 1822, when Polly was in the vigor of manhood, he purchased forty acres there> on which are the fountains and the present growing village of Massena Springs; and there he erected the first accommodations for visitors. At about that time a young girl greatly afflicted with salt-rheum came, and was completely healed. A few years later, the Canadian Roman Catholic Bishop, Alexander M'Donald, came there with the " black scrofula," which he had contracted in Egypt. His legs were covered with black nlcers to his knees. He remained a month and was entirely cured. Since then, hundreds afflicted with every description of cutaneous disease, chronic dyspepsia, and diarrhoea, and kindred complaints, have there found relief or positive cures. Such is the general testimony.

"There are two springs, only a few feet apart, one warm arid the other cold. The latter is enclosed and surrounded by a spacious covered platform. The other is also enclosed, but is so little used that its surroundings are about as primitive as when the moose and the deer resorted there; of late it has been built over by the embankment of a bridge.
"In 1828 the present Harrowgate House was erected on the top of the slope, about forty rods from the river, where the springs were first curbed. In 1848 the spacious brick edifice opposite the Harrowgate House, known as the United States Hotel, was erected by Benjamin Phillips, and both are owned by him. All about has a new appearance. The little village of a dozen houses has grown up within a fe.v years ; a bath-house has been erected, and shade trees have been planted. Other and extensive improvements are in contemplation, and soon the Massena Springs will become a delightful summer resort for the healthy as well as the sick."— Harper's New Monthly, June, 1856.

The water, as sold in bottles, is stated to contain less of the gas than is the case at the spring, where it presents more of a sparkling appearance. It is at first perfectly clear, and of not unpleasant taste, aside of the sulphurous. Like other similar waters, it becomes turbid when exposed for some time to the air, a portion of the sulphur being precipitated; but this again disappears by the continued oxydising action of the air, and the odor itself is finally lost.

THE HATHORN SPRING.

This spring is on Spring street, directly opposite the north wing of Congress Hall. It was discovered in 1869 by some workmen employed in placing the foundation of the brick block which contains the ball-room of Congress Hall. It is named in honor of the Hon. Henry H. Hathorn, who first developed the spring and rebuilt the famous Congress Hall Hotel. The spring was very securely tubed in 1872, at the large expense of $15,000. The Hathorn spring has since become one of the most valuable springs in Saratoga. Large quantities of water are
bottled and sold in the leading towns and cities of the United States and Canada.

  GEYSER OR "SPOUTING SPRING."

This spring is a most wonderful fountain of mineral water. It was discovered in 1870, and is situated about one mile and a quarter southwest of the village of Saratoga Springs, in the midst of the beautiful region now known as "Geyser Lake and Park." The spring-house is a building which was formerly occupied for manufacturing purposes;
but has, since the spring was discovered, been fitted up for the reception of visitors. As you enter the building, directly in front is this marvelous spouting spring, sending forth a powerful stream of water to the very top of the room, which, in descending to its surrounding basin, sprays into a thousand crystal streams, forming a
beautiful, overflowing fountain charming to behold.
THE STAR SPRING

Located on Spring avenue near the termination of Circular street. Star Spring Co., proprietors, Melvin Wright, Superintendent. History.
Under the name of President Spring, and afterwards Iodine Spring, the fountain now called the Star has been known for nearly a century; long enough to test its merits and long enough to sink it in oblivion if it
possessed no merits. Its lustre is undimmed, and it promises to be a star that shall never set. During these many years a goodly proportion of tottering humanity have found in this spring an amendment to their
several crippled constitutions. It was first tubed in 1835. In 1865 the Star Spring Co. was formed, and in the following year the spring was retubed under their direction. In 1870 they erected the finest
bottling-house in Saratoga. Great care is taken to preserve the spring in a pure condition and perfect repair. The water has become immensely popular in New England, where it is "the spring," and throughout the United States and Canada. For Commercial Use.
The water is sold in cases of quarts and pints, and besides, owing to the large amount of gas which is finely incorporated with the water, the company are enabled to supply families with it in kegs of fifteen gallons, in which the water keeps as well as in bottles, and at one-fourth to one-sixth the cost. This method seems to give entire
satisfaction and is fast coming into general use. This is the only spring that supplies the water in bulk to families. The price to druggists in bulk is twenty cents per gallon, to families $4 per half barrel, to the trade in cases at $21 per gross for pints, and $30 per gross for quarts. Properties. The Star water is mildly cathartic, has a pleasant, slightly acid taste, gentle and healthy in its action, and yet powerful in its effects. It is far more desirable for general use as a cathartic than the preparations of the apothecary.  Rev. Dr. Cuyler, in one of his peculiarly charming letters, gives the Star Water preference over all others as an active and efficient cathartic. 

SCHULTZ & WARKER


Mr. Carl, H. Schultz was born at Jutroschin-on-the-Orla, in the Province of Posen, on the 2nd of October, 1827. He began his education at the schools of his native town. In 1840 he entered the schools at Krotochin, and later the gymnasium of Lissa. From there he went to the University of Breslau, from which he graduated in 1849. Being
particularly fond of chemistry and natural philosophy, he continued the study of these branches for some time after the regular course was finished.
While in the tertiary course in the gymnasium, although only thirteen years of age, he gave private instructions in mathematics and later in chemistry.

In 1853, during the World's Fair in New York, he came to America, bringing with him very little money, but some strong letters of recommendation, and was not long in finding employment. His first situation was with the late Professor Benjamin Silliman, who had charge of the Chemical Department of the Exposition. Later he was
appointed assistant to Dr. John Torrey, Professor of Chemistry at the College of Physicians and Surgeons, then in Crosby street. In 1854 the United States Assay Office appointed Dr. Torrey Chief Assayer, and he at once made Mr. Schultz his assistant. He not being a citizen of the United States was offered as an objection to his appointment, but he overcame this by taking out his first papers, and after the proper time, his second papers. Few men ever felt prouder of their citizenship or could have been more thoroughly American. While at the Assay Office, besides his routine work of making gold and silver assays, he found time to do a good deal of investigation in connection with Dr. Torrey, and much valuable work toward improving the methods of assaying. At the same time he did the
chemical work for the Manhattan Gas Company, and the laboratory at 18th Street Station was fitted up under his
supervision, and remains to-day, with few alterations, as he left it.

While holding the position at the Medical College in Crosby Street, he lodged in the college building and took his meals in a boarding house in the neighborhood. There he met the late Thomas Warker, who showed him a French siphon. With his characteristic quickness of perception, he at once saw its advantages for keeping water fresh and sparkling, and especially its value in the sick-room. Believing that the manufacture of artificial mineral waters would be a profitable industry, hebegau making investigations'on the subject.
In 1862 he and Thomas Warker established a business for the production of mineral waters on a small scale, under the firm name of Schultz and Warker, which continued until 1871, when Mr. Schultz bought out Mr. Warker's interest, and has since conducted the business under his own name. In 1871 the business had assumed such proportions that it was necessary to move into larger quarters, and he purchased property on First Avenue and located his factory where the business is still continued.